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PSYC 1000 - Week 2 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 2 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 2 Notes
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About this Document

Notes from Lecture 1/20 and 1/22
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
psych, Introductory Psychology, Rollins
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
PSYC 1000 Notes Week 2 Jan 20­22 Notes from Lecture 1/20 ­ Correlational Research ­ Issues with correlational research ­ Intervening/third variables: unmeasured variables that may be responsible for a  correlation ­ Experimental method ­ Only way to gauge cause­and­effect relationships ­ One variable is manipulated while all other variables remain constant ­ Effect of this on another variable is measured ­ Variables ­ Independent variable (IV): manipulated ­ Dependent variable (DV): measured ­ Groups ­ Experimental group ­ Control group: baseline ­ Research issues ­ Operational definitions: precise definitions ­ Results may differ depending on how variables are defined and measured ­ Confounding variables ­ Uncontrolled factors that may influence DV ­ May confuse interpretation ­ Random assignment ­ Probabilistic equivalence between groups in terms of backgrounds and  experiences ­ Reduces impact of some confounding variables ­ Placebo effect: when treatment has an effect due to expectations ­ The placebo lacks an active ingredient but looks the same ­ Double Blind Design ­ Subjects and experimenters interacting with subjects are unaware which  subjects are in the experimental vs. control groups ­ Statistical significance ­ Way to eliminate randomness as an explanation for results ­ Desirable ­ Mathematical estimation of how likely the experimental results are due to  chance (How likely is it that the average difference between the experimental and control  groups on the DV is due to random fluctuation?) ­ Arbitrary cut­off in psychology: p ≤ 0.5 ­ Observed results would occur by chance 5% (or less) of the time (results  are most likely not random) ­ Practical significance: meaningfulness and importance ­ Publication bias: statistically significant results are more likely to be published Notes from lecture 1/22 Biology and Behavior ­ Biopsychology/Biological Psychology: study of how biological factors influence behavior and thinking ­ General functions of the nervous system ­ Input: information nervous system receives ­ Processing: analyzes input ­ Output: responds to output Nervous system ­ Neuron structure and function ­ Neurotransmitters ­ Peripheral nervous system ­ Central nervous system ­ Cells ­ Glia: support, guide growth, and provide nutrition to neurons ­ Neurons: receive, process, store, and transmit information using  electrical and chemical processes ­ Rapid response ­ Structures of the neuron ­ Dendrites: receive information from other neurons ­ Cell body/Soma: control center ­ Axon: long fiber ­ Action potentials (Away from cell body) ­ Electrical signals ­ Myelin sheath: insulation for axons ­ Terminal buttons: contain neurotransmitters  ­ Located at end of axon, contain vesicles ­ Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers  ­ Carry messages between neurons ­ Stored in vesicles ­ Acetylcholine (ACh): memory ­ Norepinephrine (Ne): attention, mood ­ Serotonin (5­HT): mood, sensory perception ­ Dopamine (DA): reward/pleasure, movement ­ GABA: inhibitory ­ Glutamate (Glu): excitatory ­ Endorphins: pain relief ­ Neurons usually do not touch ­ Surrounded in fluid, held in place by glia cells ­ Action potential causes vesicles to release neurotransmitters to  reach synaptic cleft ­ Synapse/synaptic cleft: gap between neurons between  terminal buttons of one neuron and dendrites of another ­ Receptors: bind to neurotransmitters (like a lock and key) ­ Affects likelihood that postsynaptic neuron will  fire its own action potential ­ Presynaptic neuron: releases neurotransmitters  ­ Postsynaptic neuron: receives neurotransmitters ­ Action potential: electrochemical signals ­ Travels down axon like electricity through a wire ­ A single neuron can only fire one speed of action  potentials (same speed within a neuron) ­ All­or­none: cannot travel more slowly or more  quickly (on or off) ­ Post­synaptic potentials (PSPs) ­ Electrical changes that occur when neurotransmitter binds to receptors on postsynaptic neuron ­ Excitatory (EPSP): makes neuron more likely to fire  action potential  ­ Inhibitory (IPSP): makes neuron less likely to fire action  potential ­ EPSPs and IPSPs add up and action potentials fire when it reaches a certain excitatory level ­ Neurons are arranged in networks ­ Brain learns by modifying certain connections in response to feedback (specific skills develop)


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