Con 101, Week 1
Con 101, Week 1 CON 101
Popular in Const/Culture: a Built Environ
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trevor Hatton on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CON 101 at Arizona State University taught by Knutson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Const/Culture: a Built Environ in Construction and Management at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Construction 101 – Week 1 1/12/2016 – 1/14/2016 Significant Changes During The Paleolithic Era Irrigation was “understood”. Animals were domesticated. Men replaced women as laborers. “Explosion” in development of building technology Beginnings of migration The “Big Change” (20,000 B.C.) Climate Changes: o Ice Melted o Glaciers Retreated o The Rains Came Geographic and Demographic Changes: o Forests Grew o Game Migrated Now a hostile environment. Stagnant for next 10,000 years. Oldest ManMade Structure (25,000 B.C. in Russia) 39ft x 10ft Communal dwelling. o Used by hunters. o Protected by 6t high wall Significant Features: o Sunk 10ft with ramps. o Walls lined with timbers. o Roof was made from logs and then covered with earth. o Hearth with hood and chimney. Chimney was a new advancement and allowed for smoke to flow freely. Northern Africa (100,000 Years) People changed their diets to grains (oats, barley, wheat) and hunters became farmers. The earliest farming center was constructed. Belt caves and 25ft diameter huts. Jericho (7800 B.C.) Beginning of Neolithic revolution. Near the Dead Sea which meant the climate was hot and dry. Permanent settlements. Introduced irrigation. Flimsy huts turned to dust. Jarmo (6500 B.C.) First evidence of “Pise”. o Pise was clay and earth combined together. Multiroomed rectangular houses. Used stone foundations. Some timber used within the walls. Lasted about 2 generations. Led to the mounds or “tells”. Jerusalem Good example of “mounding” o Original city 100 feet below the current level. o At least 8 Jerusalem’s were built. Jericho (2 and 3 Generations) Beehive houses built with pise o Surrounded by masonry walls. Rectangular houses. o Sunbaked brick walls were covered with plaster and pained, as well as having polished floors and wooden door frames. Hassuna (4500 B.C.) Rectangular houses. Courtyard with subsidiary buildings. Storage rooms. Used pise blocks for walls Roof system used “facines” covered with thatching. European Communal Houses (4000 B.C.) 160ft long and rectangular that were made mostly from timber. Roofs steeply pitched roofs, which were made with rafters and columns and ridged poles Divided into human and animal areas. KolnLindenthal Village Contained about 25 households (100150 villagers). Resettled 7 times (4600 to 4200 B.C.). o 10 year inhabitations. o 50 year intervals o Very crop dependent which lead to the leaving because there was no surplus of food to be found. SkaraBrae Village (3000 B.C.) Migrated to Britain and brought livestock, farming tools and seed corn. No known reason for going so far north. Established most admiral village ever discovered in the north. 7 houses each 20ft x 18ft which were built of stone that had rounded corners as well as corbeled roofs. Rafters were made from whale bones. 4ft high Stone doors that pivoted o Size of door were for preventing invasions. . Developed sewer system. The Garden of Eden (3000 B.C.) Biblical area where civilization began. Teemed with fish and fowl. Cooperative efforts to drain the swamps, provide irrigation and build dams and canals. The “Fertile Crescent” (Now known as Iraq) Soil did not become infertile Caused the “Sparks” (catalysts) of civilization. o Created a surplus which allowed for trading, bartering, writing/recording documentation and politics. Effects of Being “Civilized” Politics start to form. Tax collectors Spurred intellectual discovers such as arithmetic, geometry and astronomy. Sumerian Reed House Reflected the delta heritage. The primary material used was reeds. Formed into facines, used as columns, beams and rafters. Had two elevations o The arched roof and semicircle vaulted roof. Applied pise to reed framework, led to terrapise concept and stucco finish. Origins of Words Egyptian: o “Urbs” City or urban Greek: o “Politikos” Civic or Civilization o “Polis” City “MaterPolis” (metropolis) “MegaPolis” (megapolis) Miscellaneous: o “Burg” Fortified place (English) o “Grad” Same, but a Russian origin
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