Psychology 220 Week 2 Notes
Psychology 220 Week 2 Notes Psych 220
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #2 2/26 Chapter 1: Introduction: The Study of Human Development Overview The study of human development Definition of development General principles of development How development proceeds Research designs for development Defining Development -The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people change or remain the same over time. -Normative development of human beings The Science of Human Development 1. Study of science o Empirical: based on data, experiences, facts 2. All types of people o Identify universalities and differences 3. Changes over time o From birth to death 1. The study of science The Scientific Method -Empirical research and data based conclusions 1. Ask a question -On the basis of theory, prior research, or personal observance 2. Develop a hypothesis -Specific prediction that can be tested and either confirmed or refuted 3. Test the hypothesis -Gather empirical evidence -Methodology questions the hypotheses: Validity Reliability Generalizability Usefulness 4. Draw a conclusion -Does the evidence support or refute the hypothesis? 5. Make the findings available -Report the procedures, data, statistics, conclusions, and alternative explanations. This permits replication of the experiment. Nature vs. Nurture Controversy The basic question: how much of any characteristic, behavior, or emotion is the result of genes, and how much is the result of experience? Not a question of nature or nurture, rather a combination of both to different degrees. Nature: in development, nature refers to the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception. Nurture: in development, nurture includes all the environmental influences that affect the individual after conception. This includes everything from the mother’s nutrition while pregnant to the implicit values of the nation. Both intersect for each individual in different ways Example: some people inherit genes for diabetes (nature) but never get the disease because diet and exercise (nurture) protects them. Multidisciplinary Development: The Three Domains NOTE: very few factors belong exclusively to one domain; usually they are interrelated. Development is not fragmented it is holistic. Biosocial (biology) o Includes all physical growth and change o Genetic, nutritional, and health factors Example: motor skills- everything from grasping a rattle to driving a car Cognitive (psychology) o Includes all mental processes to obtain knowledge o Perception, imagination, judgment, memory, language o Processes used to think, decide, and learn Example: both formal curriculums in school and informal learning elsewhere Psychosocial (sociology) o Includes social development of emotions, temperament, and social skills o Family, friends, community, culture, larger society. Example: cultural difference in sex roles like women cleaning inside the house and men doing the yard work. 2. All types of people Difference or Deficit Difference-equals-deficit error: the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard. -The human tendency to observe differences and then conclude that people are inferior if they are unlike the observer; differences are assumed to be problems. Sexual Orientation Culture, ethnicity, race o Social constructions: an idea that is built on shared perceptions, not on objective reality. o Culture- a system of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors, and expectations that persist over time and prescribe social behavior and assumptions. o Ethnic group- people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion. Socioeconomic status (SES) A person’s position in society as determined by income, occupation, education, and place of residence. 3. Changes over time Patterns of Developmental Growth Many patterns have been discovered by researchers. Although linear progress seems most common, scientists now find almost no aspect of human change follows the linear pattern exactly. Critical period: a time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen for normal development to occur. Example: the critical period for humans to grow arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes is between 28 and 54 days after conception. After that it is too late. Sensitive period: a time when a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen later with more difficulty. Example: early childhood is considered a sensitive period for language learning. Multicontextual Development Ecological-systems approach: a perspective on human development that considers all the influences from the various contexts of development. Historical context o Cohort: people born within the same historical period who therefore move through life together, experiencing the same events, new technologies, and cultural shifts at the same ages. Age related development Example: the effect of the Internet on a teenager verses a 70 year old Microsystem -family, peer groups, classroom, neighborhood, house of worship -Intimately and immediately shape human development Exosystem -institutional influence, external networks -Community structure, local education, medical, employment Macrosystem -cultural patterns, political philosophies, economic policies -Larger social setting influencing development Mesosystem -the interaction between all of the other systems (interrelations) Chronosystem -dimension of time; changing conditions over a lifespan Multidirectional Development *Keep in mind that all development is a process with direction The dynamic systems approach- a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial influences. The crucial understanding is that development is never static but is always affected by, and affects, many systems of development. Cultural example: in the United States we have a tendency to put infants on the floor a lot with a blanket under them; children generally begin to walk between 9 months to a year. In China children are bundled and carried around for most of their first year; they learn to walk at a later age/stage in development Plasticity- the idea that abilities, personality, and other human characteristics can change over time. Plasticity is particularly evident during childhood, but even older adults are not always “set in their ways.” Moldable yet durable Ongoing change Involves irreversible, cumulative change Involves sequential emergence Example: as an infant you learn how to hold your head up, then you learn how to sit up, then to stand, then to crawl, then to walk, etc. You don’t forget how to do any of these things once a new change is learned. The Butterfly Effect o Tiny event enormous impact o Filling a glass to the brim adding one more drop overflows Continuity in Wartime o Extreme event little impact o Not only does the event itself matter, but how the event is perceived by the person affected matters equally o Resilience When a child has a loving adult in their life (parent, grandparent, older sibling, aunt, etc.) they’re more likely to positively develop What properties of change constitute development? -Development involves changes that are sequential -Development involves changes that are cumulative -Development involves changes that are irreversible -Development involves changes that are directional Continuity- stable characteristics over time (unchanging) Example: the sex you were born Discontinuity- different characteristics from before (changing) Example: raised speaking Spanish, later learned how to speak English Types of Research Observational o A method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants’ behavior in a systematic and objective manner- in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or in searches of archival data. Experimental o A method to determine cause and effect. Researchers control the participants and the interventions, which makes it easier to understand what causes what, for whom. Independent variable- imposed treatment or special condition Dependent variable- the outcome of the experiment (result) Experimental group- subject to particular treatment or condition Control group- does not receive treatment Survey o A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means. Case Study o An in-depth study of one person, usually requiring personal interviews to collect background information and various follow-up discussions, tests, questionnaires, and so on. Cross-Sectional o A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics o Example: 74% of men aged 25-29 were in the labor force but only 52% of men aged 60-64 were. Advantages: less time-consuming, less expensive, less sample attrition (drop-outs), and no practice effects due to repeated testing. Disadvantages: cohort effects (something different between the age groups), can’t study individual variation, hard to tap into processes that produce development. Longitudinal o A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time, as their development is repeatedly assessed. o Example: tracking a group of teenagers nicotine addiction development from when they start smoking at age 14 up to when they turn 20. Advantages: no cohort effects, can study individual variation, easy to tap into processes that produce development. Disadvantages: time-consuming, expensive, more sample attrition, practice effects due to repeated testing. Cross-Sequential o A research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groups over the years (longitudinal approach). o Example: researches comparing a group of females from birth, at age 3, and at age 6 against a separate group of females at birth, at age 3, and at age 6. Cautions Correlation does not equal causation Correlation- two variables are related Causation- one variable triggers the other Code of ethics- a set of moral principles or guidelines that researchers are expected to follow Other Definitions of Development: -A process with direction (generally) involving an increase in novelty and complexity -Involves irreversible, cumulative change -Sequential emergence of new structures and functions Witherington’s Lab Definition of Development: -The sequential emergence of novel structures and functions by processes of organism-environment interactions Applications 1. It is said that culture is pervasive but that people are unaware of it. List 15 things you did today that you might have done differently in another culture. 2. How would your life be different if your parents were higher or lower in SES? Consider all three domains 3. A longitudinal case study can be insightful but also limited. Describe the life of one of your older relatives, explaining what aspects of their development are unique and what aspects might be relevant for everyone. 2/28 Chapter 2: Theories of Development Overview Metatheoretical framework Modern meta-theories o Nativist o Empiricist o Constructivist o Contextualist Grand theories o Psychoanalytic o Behaviorism o Cognition A developmental theory is a systematic statement of general principles that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older. A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret observation Preformation vs. Epigenesis Preformation- development consists only of growth of preexisting parts, process of enlargement (homunculus). -All features present in some form at conception Epigenesis- new structures and functions emerge from simpler, more global ones -Features do not preexist but emerge over course of development Metatheoretical Framework for Modern Theories of Development 1. Nativist –the primary source of change in development is endogenous (originates within the person). Specifically the genes Maturation is the major cause- unfolding of genetic blueprint Environment as a trigger Innate ideas, competent infant, born with everything they need to become a healthy adult 2. Empiricist –primary source of change in development is exogenous (from the environment). Specifically external environment Learning through your senses is the major cause Organism, its biological make-up, is secondary- may place general limits 3. Constructivist –source of development neither in genes nor environment Source is the interaction between both; organism and environment The organism is actively constructing its own development Genes, environmental components, not the sources of development - process 4. Contextualist –source of development in interaction Both children and caretakers active agents Co-construction Importance of individual variation over universals Cultural, historical, domain, task specificity NO INVARIANT SEQUENCE o Organism is not the same from context to context. Knowledge and psychological structure don’t really exist in the organism, they are not independent of specific context o The Organism-in-Context is the appropriate unit of analysis for the study of development Grand Theories 1. Psychoanalytic Theory -A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior. Freud: potential conflicts in each stage o Personality and behavior is determined by how people perceive and resolve conflicts o The conflicts are between our aggressive pleasure-seeking biological impulses and internalized social restraints against them. Erikson: conflicts at each stage o Resolution is somewhere between the extremes o Conflict resolution depends on individual and social environment o Emphasize family and culture, not sexual urges -Both focused on the unconscious, internalized, and fact that later problems were causes because of early childhood. -Social and cultural factors affected development. Approximate Age Freud (Psychosexual) Erikson (Psychosocial) Birth to 1 year Oral stage Trust vs. mistrust 1-3 years Anal stage Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3-6 years Phallic stage Initiative vs. guilt 6-11 years Latency Industry vs. inferiority Adolescence Genital stage Identity vs. role confusion Adulthood Genital stage Intimacy vs. isolation continued 2. Behaviorism -A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. It describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. Conditioning and social learning theory Focuses solely on observable behavior Development occurs when an organism learns an observable behavior Conditioning- the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. Emphasizes the importance of repeated practice, similar to how an athlete conditions his or her body. o Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): the learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no meaning before conditioning (also called respondent conditioning). Example: if you sound a bell every time you feed a dog, eventually the dog associates the sound of the bell with being fed. o Operant Conditioning (Skinner): a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a positive reinforcement and diminished if followed by a negative reinforcement (also called instrumental conditioning). Example: when a child shares a toy he receives a piece of candy Reinforcement Positive: any “desirable” event that follows a behavior to increase the likelihood of that behavior reoccurring. Negative: any “unwanted” event that follows a behavior to decrease the likelihood of that behavior reoccurring. Punishment Positive: by adding an aversive stimulus Negative: by subtracting a desirable stimulus o Social Learning: an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns through observation and imitation of other people (also called observational learning). Modeling: many human behaviors are learned through observation and imitation of people -Bandura’s bobo doll experiment -Modeling can be used for both prosocial and antisocial behaviors Self-efficacy: reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment. -Motivation to change 3. Cognitive Theory -A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and behaviors. How people think changes with time and experience Cognitive equilibrium: a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas. Example: an infant grabs new objects the same way it grabs familiar objects Cognitive adaptation: 1. Assimilation- new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into old ideas -Incorporates new world into existing structure 2. Accommodation- old ideas are restructured to include new experiences -Bending the structure to fit new world Information-processing theory: a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output. Age Name of period Characteristics Major gains of period during the period Birth to 2 years Sensorimotor Infants use Object senses and permanence- motor abilities infants learn to understand objects exist out the world of sight 2-6 years Preoperational Children think Imagination symbolically, flourishes, with language. language Egocentrism- becomes perceiving from significant for their own social influence perspective 6-11 years Concrete Children Concepts of operational understand and conservation, apply logic by number, direct classification, experience etc. 12+ years Formal Adolescents and Ethics, politics, operational adults utilize social, and abstract moral issues concepts. Ability become of analysis. prominent through theoretical reasoning Scientific example: information-processing research has led to the discovery that in children with ADHD certain brain circuits (called fronto-striatal) do not function normally. Consequently, it is hard for them to read facial expressions and interpret voice tone to understand others’ emotions. 4. Sociocultural Theory -A newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces Each culture offers a unique design for living Influences come from parents, peers, teachers, media, etc. Both the individual and the culture influence the types of things that are learned o Apprenticeship in thinking (Vygotsky): term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of the community. o Guided participation: the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations. This learning is direct and interactive. The Zone of Proximal Development: (Vygotsky) -A metaphorical area, or ‘zone,’ surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close, ‘proximal,’ to acquiring but cannot yet master without help. Children spontaneously perform at given levels but can perform at higher levels with the support of more experienced caregivers (parents, teachers, grandparents, older sibling, etc.) 5. Epigenetic Theory -The interaction of genes and the environment Dynamic and reciprocal Genetic: responsible for instincts and abilities, developmental changes Blood type, metabolic rate, moodiness, intelligence Environment: plays an equal role in development Nutrition, injury, parental love The Universal Perspective: Humanism and Evolution Humanism: a theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1. Physiological (basic survival): need for food, drink, and shelter 2. Safety (security): feeling protected from injury and death 3. Love and belonging: being appreciated by friends, family, community 4. Esteem: being respected by oneself and community; successful 5. Self-actualization: becoming your unique self, fulfilling one’s potential Evolution Selective adaptation: the process by which living creatures adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over the generations, to becoming more prevalent. Eclectic perspective- the approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories rather than being exclusive to one theory.
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