Class Note for ATMO 336 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
The Human Dimension Earth can function without humans around The sun will burn for several billion more years The climate will fluctuate in the future as in the past The internal heat of the Earth will drive convection currents and recycle the land Volcanoes will erupt and continents will drift The oceans and atmosphere will circulate and their materials cycle Earth is a dynamic planet of endless change F T Mackenzie and J A Mackenzie Suggested Readings G Tyler Miller Jr Sustaining the Earth An Integrated ApproachWadsworth 1994 F T Mackenzie and J A Mackenzie Our Changing Earth An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change Prentice Hall 1995 H Weiss et al The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization Science 261 995 1993 ll Reid Bryson and Thomas Murray Climates of HungerUnivers Press 1977 We Wish to Learn What is the basic time line for human evolution What relations can we describe among ancient climates tech development and human population What kinds of natural processes led to cultural innovations Context Palennlnlngy The Hislnry nl Lile m m m aywnwmamammustMu nd17w mm mmmmw mm mm m m mm H WM is vow1W my links1n w W mmnmusm M m a v ltazmm quotmm mm u nmnivmn armsnhzrivskm mm m mum quotmm W M 1m mm W gymk mmmm WW mm m u i u x z z u hm hm mum Junks om rm nan m m m m mnwmm mmm hammmwmw m m Aymnmmg mam mmmmg rmmmim Wm mud mam mm mmmmmuq mnt mm an hm quotmm arivsimk Vvs mammak znnmm w isquot 25 mu 7 m 25 7mm Humans have been present for only a tiny fraction of the time that life has existed on the Ea1th Primates have been here for about 75 million years The rst Hominids Early Steps any Hommm My 5 E W Bwpedzhsm footprmts 5 4 3 mmmn years zgu 41 MV Tum shammg concave candy at the knee We rude mm me mm 2X2 Eoo ooo years 2 1 Madam Man Neandertha s Cummnn Cmmp Amsmr Cnmmnn GDHHz Amsmr prasent Climate Histories Climate Climate 3O O 200 400 600 Years x1000 800 Less Ice More Ice Ancient climate changes can be assessed using various techniques including ocean sediment and ice core studies Humans have evolved over the last million years or so during a period of continual climatic change The climate has been several degrees colder than the present for most of this time Interglacials last on average 10000 year s our current interglacial has lasted longer than that already Human development time scale short comp drift though ice bridg dissipated many times Logarithmic Population Plot 10 Industrial 10 Revolution 8 Agricultural a revolution 3 o 8107 To ol Making E U E I 104 1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 Years BP Each revolution has led to an increased consumption of population growth is driven by developing nations Larg resources are required to sustain the growing population 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 Humanity s Family Tree Afarensis Dryopithecus Radiation Genetic Studies have shown that the closest relative to modern humans is the Chimpanzee Several hominid species c0 existed for long periods much as in today s world various species of Ape coexist The exact shape of the family tree is still hotly debated but it is abundantly clear that the path to humans resembled a bush with ladder The most correspo period of must hav role in ac evolution World Population Timeline U 7 Old Stone New Stone Age Bronze Iron Middle S Age Age Age Ages 9 4 N gt4 gt4 gtlt gt 6 0 V 5 Metal lndustria g Hunter gatherers workmg Era 395 4 Irrigation E caVe Art Ploughing a 3 Agricultural Christi n Revolutlon amp Era 2 s E 1 39 3 I 0 I I I 500000 10000 8000 6000 4000 Years BP The human population has been relatively stable for most exception of the two rapid growth periods at the beginning and Industrial Revolutions Source Mackenzie and Mackenzie 1995 o ms savannahlwoodland Dry Savannahgrassland CI Desert l Freshwater lake Rm Valley mounlmns gtCon nenal mm 3 Rainrbearing winds 20 Mimon Vears 55 Million Years AP 5 mvmswwo HOMMDS ssusumsn APES amwws Combination of continental drift and 0 change produced the changed environ led to the evolution of the hominids Human Cultural Development A Story Roughly 13 million years ago several centuries of drought caused East African forest to thin out The drier climate forced treedwelling primates out of their forest homes challenging them to find new ecological niches in the advancing savannah Those primates that stayed became chimps gorillas and a recently discovered intermediate species Those that moved out became us About 45 million years ago Ramidus lived in Ethiopia with human and simian characteristics Ramidus may have been the rst bipedal primate and was about 4 ft tall About 35 million years ago upright walking had developed quot refashioning childbirth babies born immature and freein other tasks they developed asymmetic capabilities along By 3 million years ago the brain of Australopithecus sho assymetry the larger left side handling manipulative abili First primitive tools have been related to finds in Ethiopia Habilis to Sapiens ammmm qmmimgmmWemmlgedtaugmpmhmmmpkbdhmm Habilis evolved and spread through and out of Africa By 2 million years ago Homo Erectus ve foot tall was living in the cooler East Africa hill country running down prey searching for food and using specialized tools for butchering pounding vegetables cracking and sharpening animal bones By 600000 years ago brain size had doubled again re was in use teeth were smaller changes to the larynx and tongue allowed speech to dev About 120000 years ago Homo Sapiens moved out of East Sahara living compleX lives in rock shelters They hunted tool kits and ranged over large distances By 90000 years Middle East 40000 years ago they had spread across Eur 39 miles per year By 15000 years ago they had crossed the America using tools to fashion warm clothes Main races l sari art forms developed Agricultural Revolution mag WWaneirg m dnnanm orat aatlnyl engl39tn People then started to settle more or less permanently in appropriate places Dry farming generated a food surplus leading to an economy that could support specialities other than food production only 3 square miles per settler were needed for food The rst villages were on the plains of the Levant in view of the Mediterranean a place fertile with plentiful fsh and fruit This region no longer contains its once vast primordial forests Around 7000 years ago increasingly long spells of dry we riverine communities to invent irrigation in river valleys led to great food surpluses increased population density 1 bureaucracies to measure and control the surplus Trading Writing developed as a way to keep track of property Kin and the rst cities were founded in Mesopotamia Slash an were used to clear forests Animals were domesticated Mesopotamia v SKI vQ SIMA o 0 5 h 0 A on 0 4o Extensive archaeological research has documented the nature of the rise and fall of the Tell Leilan Mesopotamian civilization Weiss et al Science 1993 Ehphaa zdt etween two rivers Tigris and As with other riverine civilizations in China India and Egypt this area experienced sudden rapid growth associated with irrigation wet farming After 4 thousand years of a stable small agricultural settlement in Northern Mesopotamia during the Tell Leilan period 26002400 BC a rapid increase in sophistication and population occurred coincident with increased varovil n formed with the So During several cent quot civilization disappe BC Classic Maya Decline Ca C03 s 3190 950 5130060 Lithology 0 20 40 6O 80 0 5 10 15 1 2 3 o o L H i 4 mm l 2000 39 a I a 3000 1 z t a g quot 1 1 c a 4 u r 500 39 t g t r b 2 t a 6000 1 lt q q h 7 E nit beccurn 3mg 39 I T quot Ostncods Ibsen 9000 a b 39 i c 39 Eamon Eoypsum Emmxm German I Charcoal n Palacosol Hodell et al Nature 375 391 1995 49 m Core sediment studies from Lake Chichancanab Yucatan show evidence of drought in oxygen isotopes and sulphur deposits Depth cm The Maya civilization developed 3000 years ago in Mesoarnerica After ourishing during the classic period it suddenly collapsed around 1100 years ago The period of collapse coincided with distinctly Egypt Egyp daicbyil za pncdaivmmlagegl fytlatmsi mthat of Mesopotamia and Egypt was protected on three sides by desert and on the fourth by the sea Bapp wg t xg pMnticb plltaalimgwlr39etilmgikrab ielaileabl tbhng much broader The nile ooded regularly enabling easy irrigation channels Egypt centralized quickly and attained themost bureaucratized economy in history They developed a new kind of script the alphabet When this reached Greece it seeded modern philosophical thinking processes Summary Human Development Change from simple subsistence foraging by family units to hunting and gathering carried out by larger band groups as a directed and organized undertaking Change from organized nomadic hunting to semi sedimentary life and exploitation of natural resources in a particular territory Change to actual raising of plant foods and the breeding of animals agricultural revolution intensificatio o sedimentary life the Village r Change to strong intercommunal trade and manufacturing Nucleation of populations Industrial revolution Discovery and refine techniques to concentrate energy Radiation of Human Population In 1969 hominids arrived albeit brie y on the Moon Radiation of Human Population I 4 lo 15 Mllllun Years Ago 1 5 Mnnon Io 40000 Years Ago um Years Ago 1 Fraser
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