Psychology 110- Chapter 1
Psychology 110- Chapter 1 Chemistry 120 (Chemistry, Heather Bass, General Chemistry)
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Chemistry 120 (Chemistry, Heather Bass, General Chemistry)
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Burns on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 120 (Chemistry, Heather Bass, General Chemistry) at UTK taught by Heather Bass in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at UTK.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
PSYCHOLOGY 110 Notes (Spring 2016) Alex Ka Chapter 1- Psychology and Scientific thinking 1. Defining Psychology a. Scientific study of the mind, brain and behavior b. Psychology involves a. Multiple levels of analysis 1. Ex) the flu (multiple symptoms) b. Multiple determinants for observable phenomena 1. Look at many different factors to determine a certain phenomenon c. Account for individual variation d. Multiple methods for studying the phenomenon 1. People behave different in different situations 2. Cultures are different c. So what do psychologist actually study? a. They study multiple different things 1. Ex) 2. Scientific Theory a. An explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world a. Based on observations b. Gravity, tectonic plates, genetics b. Allow us to make predictions about that which we have not yet observed a. How quickly an item will fall to the ground, locations of future earthquakes, likelihood of inheriting a genetic disorder 3. Hypothesis a. A prediction made based on a scientific theory 4. The issue a. Confirmation bias a. The tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and deny, dismiss or distort evidence that contradicts them b. Meta-physical a. Cannot be tested with the scientific method 5. Pseudoscience a. A set of claims that “seem” scientific but are not b. Rampant in “pop psychology” a. Not an actual science behind it, but someone’s opinion already c. Apophenia a. Tendency to perceive meaningful connections among unrelated phenomena d. Pareidolia a. Tendency to perceive meaningful images 6. Thinking Scientifically a. Foundations of scientific evaluation a. Ruling out rival hypotheses b. Differentiating correlation from causation c. Falsifiability—able to be proven wrong d. Replicability—able to be repeated e. Parsimony (Occam's Razor) b. An example a. The theory… 1. The human sneeze reflex arises from localized pressure on the ventral abdominal wall during increased dorsal nasal pressure. b. The hypotheses… 1. Pressing your finger into your naval while pressing your tongue onto the roof of your mouth will cause you to sneeze 7. History of Psychology a. Descartes a. "pre-psychology" b. Until later, psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy b. Wilhelm Wundt a. First psychological laboratory c. William James a. Interested in how psychological processes were adaptive b. Influenced by Charles Darwin d. John Watson a. Behaviorism b. Based entirely on learning, rejected mental activity c. Arose in America e. Cognitivism a. Arose as response to behaviorism b. Conceptualized mental activity as a form of behavior c. Arose in America f. Sigmund Freud a. Psychoanalysis b. Arose in Europe 8. Heuristics a. Mental shortcuts that help us think efficiently and streamline our experiences a. "I before E, except after C" b. Representativeness heuristics a. Judging by superficial similarity to a prototype c. Availability heuristic a. Estimating likelihood of something based on the ease with which it comes to mind b. e.g. number of people who die by shark attacks each year versus number of transgendered veteran people of color in U.S. prisons 9. Validity a. The findings are accurately representing what is happening b. Random selection a. Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate c. External validity a. Extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings b. Can arise from random selection d. internal validity a. Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences e. Naturalistic observation
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