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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Hernandez on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300 at Tulane University taught by Professor Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Amelia Hernandez September 10 , 2014 Pgs 1325 A Brief History of Psychology - Psych has roots in philosophy. What is the nature of the mind and soul? What is the relationship between the mind and the body? Are we born with a certain amount of knowledge, or do we have to learn everything for ourselves? - Empiricism was important. Empiricists challenged the long accepted claim that some knowledge is innate. They argued that what we know about the world comes to us through experience and observation, not imagination or intuition. We are born with the blank slate mind. Wundt and the Structuralism of Titchener - 1879 is the birth of modern psychology. - Wilhelm Wundt Established the first formal psychology research lab. - Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Fechner: had been studying vision and other sensory and perceptual processes that empiricism named the channels through which human knowledge flows. - Fechner: realized that one could study these mental processes by observing people’s reactions to changes in stimuli. The relationship between changes in physical characteristics and changed in our psychological experience of them. Psychophysics. - Wundt used lab science to study sensoryperceptual systems, but he focused on consciousness. He used introspection which means looking inward. He determined that quality and intensity are the two essential elements of any sensation. This was the beginning of psych becoming a science. Consciousness: the awareness of external stimuli and our own mental activity. - Edward Titchener Was a student of Wundt. He studied consciousness as well. He added clearness as an element of sensation. He called his approach structuralism because he was trying to define the structure of consciousness. Hermann Ebbinghaus - Used introspection. His experiments formed the basis for some of what we know about memory today. Gestalt Psychologists - Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler - They pointed out that the whole shape of conscious experiment is not the same as the sum of its parts. They said to understand consciousness we have to study the whole movie, not just its component parts. Freud and Psychoanalysis - As a physician, Freud presumed that all behavior and mental processes have physical causes somewhere in the nervous system. - He questioned this after meeting patients who showed a variety of physical ailments that had no apparent physical cause. - After hypnosis and other methods he concluded that these people’s physical problems were not physical. They were deepseated problems that patients had pushed out of consciousness. - He believed that all behavior is motivated by psychological processes. - His work became psychoanalysis, which included a theory of personality and mental disorder, as well as a set of treatment methods. William James and Functionalism - Started scientific psych research in America. - G. Stanley Hall was the first psychological research lab in the US. - Like the Gesalt psychologists, James rejected both Undt’s approach and Titchener’s structuralism. He saw no point in breaking consciousness into component parts that never operate on their own. - He wanted to understand how images. Sensations, memories and the other mental events that make up our flowing “stream of consciousness” - Function to help us adapt to our environment. This idea is consistent with functionalism, which focused on the role of consciousness in guiding people’s ability to make decisions, solve problems and the like. - How do these things differ from one person to the next? John B. Watson and Behaviorism - Watching what animals did. From observations psychologists made inferences about the animals’ conscious experience and about the general laws of learning, memory, problem solving and other mental processes that might apply to people as well. - He thought it was unscientific to make inferences about consciousness or unconsciousness. He wrote an article where he argued that psychologists should ignore mental events and base psychology only on what they can actually see in overt behavior and in responses to stimuli. - Behaviorism recognizes the existence of consciousness, but did not consider it worth studying because it would always be private and therefore not observable by scientific methods. watson said preoccupation with consciousness would prevent psychology from ever being a true science. He believed that the most important determinant of behavior is learning and that it is through learning that animals and humans are able to adapt to their environments. - He said that with enough control over the environment, he could create learning experiences that would turn any infant into a doctor, lawyer or criminal. - BF Skinner mapped out the details of how rewards and punishments shape, maintain and change behavior through operant conditioning. Psychology Today - By the end of the 60s, many had become dissatisfied with the limitation imposed by behaviorism. They disliked ignoring mental processes that might be important in fully understanding behavior. - Computers made people change the way they think about mental abilities. - Psychologists today are striving to study mental processes with precision and scientific objectivity. APPROACHES TO THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY Biological approach: An approach to psychology in which behavior and behavior disorders are seen as the result of physical processes, especially those relating to the brain and to hormones and other chemicals. Evolutionary Approach: An approach to psychology that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes. - Natural selection. Genes that result in characteristics and behaviors that are adaptive and useful in a certain environment, will enable the creatures that inherit them to survive and reproduce, thereby passing those genes on to the next generation. - Cooperation is an adaptive survival strategy; aggression is a form of territory protections, and gender differences in mate selection preferences as reflecting different ways through which genes survive in future generations. Psychodynamic Approach: A view developed by Freud that emphasizes the interplay of unconscious mental processes in determining human thought, feelings and behavior. - Assumes that our behavior and mental processes reflect constant and mostly unconscious psychological struggles within us. Usually these struggles involve conflict between the impulse to satisfy instinct and the need to follow the rules of civilized society. Behavioral Approach: An approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned, especially from rewards and punishments. - Behavior problems develop through learning. - Behaviorists want to help people replace maladaptive habits with new and better ones. - human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned, especially from rewards and punishments Cognitive Approach: A way of looking at human behavior that emphasizes research on how the brain takes in information, creates perceptions, forms and retrieves memories, processes information, and generates integrated patters of action. - Study the rapid series of mental events that accompany observable behavior. - Perceived, recalled, labeled, considered, decided, executed. (on aggression) pg 22 - Want to understand decision making and problem solving as well as interpersonal attraction and intelligence. - Cognitive science: researchers study intelligent systems in humans and computers to discover the building blocks of cognition and determine how the components produce complex behaviors like remembering a fact, naming an object, writing a word, or making a decision. Humanistic Approach: An approach to psychology that views behavior as controlled by the decisions that people make about their lives based on their perceptions of the world. - these psychologists see behavior as determined by each persons capacity to choose how to think and act - they don’t see choices driven by instincts, biological processes, or rewards and punishments but by each person’s unique perception of the world. - Tries to understand how each person’s indiv. Experience guides that persons thoughts and actions. - Believes people are essentially good and are in control of themselves and they have a tendency to grow towards their highest potential. - Carl Rogers: started this approach with Abraham Maslow. - Today most psychologist find this approach limited because many think its concepts are too vague to be expressed and tested scientifically. HUMAN DIVERSITY AND PSYCHOLOGY The Impact of Sociocultural Diversity on Psychology - it is important to take into consideration that every group of people is different and could have different results of tests. - Sociocultural Factors: Social identity and other background factors, such as gender, ethnicity, social class and culture. - Culture: The accumulation of values, rules of behavior, forms of expression, religious beliefs, occupational choices, and the like for a group of people who share a common language and environment. - Individualist vs. collectivist pg 25
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