Chem 1040, week 1 of notes
Chem 1040, week 1 of notes CHEM 1040 - 003
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CHEM 1040 - 003
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Hammond on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1040 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Ria Astrid Yngard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry II in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Review of Chapter 7.3: Intermolecular Forces London Dispersion Interactions Both London Dispersion forces (sometimes just called Dispersion Dipole-dipole Interactions forces), Dipole-Dipole forces and Hydrogen Bonding forces are all - Hydrogen Bonding considered to be a part of Van der Waal’s forces. Iron-Dipole Interactions London Dispersion Forces: Columbic attractions between instantaneous dipoles of molecules - Dispersion forces are resent in ALL molecules - The larger the molecule, the more polarizable, the stronger the force Dipole-Dipole Interactions: attraction between the partially positive end of one molecule and partially negative end of a neighboring molecule - The larger the dipole moment the more polar the molecule is - Stronger intermolecular forces = more energy necessary to break apart the molecules. Hydrogen Bonding: attraction between a H-atom attached to a highly electronegative atom such as Fluorine, Oxygen, or Nitrogen and a nonbonding electron pair on a Fluorine, Oxygen, or Nitrogen Iron Dipole Interaction: columbic attractions between ions (either positive or negative) and polar molecules. [is prevalent when ionic bonding is present] The stronger the forces among molecules, the more energy it will take to separate those molecules. Chapter 12 Surface Tension - The amount of energy required to stretch on increase the surface a liquid by a unit area - Molecules on the surface of a liquid experience a pull from the forces of the surrounding molecules. This force with other surrounding like molecules is stronger than the force molecules on the surface experience with the surrounds. This is why water beads up. - Capillary Action: in which liquid is drawn upward into a narrow tube. [also observed in the water system of plants] - Adhesion: the attraction of molecules of one kind for molecules of a different kind. An example of adhesion would be water “climbing” upward through thin glass tubes placed in water. Water has an attraction to the side of the side of the glass tube that gives it this “climbing” ability. - Cohesion: the attraction of molecules for other molecules of the same kind. An example of this would be how water creates a dome like shape in a container this is due to its tendency to stick to other water molecules. Viscosity: a measure of a ﬂuid’s resistance to ﬂow - The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the viscosity (molecules move slowly stuck together) - The higher the temperature the lower the viscosity. Vapor Pressure Compare alcohol and water. Alcohol will evaporate more quickly than water. If you were to cover both of these you would be able to see the vaporization and condensation occurring within the glass cover. When the rate of vaporization is qual to the rate of condensation substance is at dynamic equilibrium. - Dynamic Equilibrium: liquid molecules evaporate and vapor molecules condenses at the same rate - Vapor Pressure: the pressure exerted when liquid and vapor states are in Dynamic Equilibrium Problem 1 Answer: CCl4 has the higher vapor pressure because it has the weaker molecular force, dispersion force, so it is easier for the molecules to escape into the vapor phase causing a greater vapor pressure. - The weaker your intermolecular forces the greater your vapor pressure is - Volatile: vaporizes quickly - Non Volatile: does not vaporize Clausius-Clapeyron Equation - The relationship between vapor pressure and temperature is given by: P = vapor pressure R = gas constant T = absolute temperature C = a constant ∆H = molar heat of vaporization - Molar Heat of Vaporization (∆Hvap): the amount of heat required to vaporize a mole of a substance at its boiling point - Molar Heat of Fusion (∆Hfus): the amount of energy required to melt a solid - Molar Heat of Sublimation (∆Hsub): is equal to the sum of the molar heat of fusion and vaporization ∆Hvap + ∆Hfus = ∆Hsub - Liquid- vapor: see able 12.5 Heating Curve Problem 2 Answer: 55.4 kJ Liquid Vapor - Boiling Point: the temperature at which tis vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure - Normal Boiling Point: the boiling point at 1 atm - Critical Temperature: the temperature above which its gas cannot be liquiﬁed - Critical Pressure: the minimum pressure needed to liquefy a substance at its critical temperature - Triple Point: the combination of pressure and the temperature where three phases of a substance exist in equilibrium - Critical Point: substance at its critical temperature and Pressure. Above this point you cannot distinguish between the liquid and gas state. Phase Diagram of CO2
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