New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Criminology Chapters 1 & 2

by: Amelia Hernandez

Criminology Chapters 1 & 2 1300

Marketplace > Tulane University > Sociology > 1300 > Criminology Chapters 1 2
Amelia Hernandez

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover chapters one and two of the 6th edition textbook Criminology: A Sociological Understanding as well as any additional notes from class during this week.
Professor Hall
Class Notes
sociology, criminology, tulane
25 ?




Popular in Criminology

Popular in Sociology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Hernandez on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300 at Tulane University taught by Professor Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.


Reviews for Criminology Chapters 1 & 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/22/16
Criminology Chapter One Notes Sociological Criminology: A sociological understanding of crime and criminal justice. It gives  explicit attention to issues of poverty and race and ethnicity as well as to the structure of  communities and social relationships.  social backgrounds influence the likelihood of someone committing crime.  Sociological Perspective: stresses that people are social beings more than mere individuals. This  means society shapes their behaviors, attitudes and like chances.   Emile Durkheim is the founder of this. He stressed that deviance will always occur  because no social norm is strong enough to prevent all rule breaking. Because deviance is normal, it is part of societal stability. A society can have no social change without  deviance.  Social Structure: refers to how a society is organized in terms of social relationships and social  interaction. It is both horizontal and vertical.  Vertical Social Structure is more commonly called Social Inequality and is how  society ranks different groups of people. These ranks can be influenced by class, race,  ethnicity and gender.   C.Wright Mills said social structure lies at the root of private troubles or public issues.  He says that the ability to understand the structural and historical basis for personal  troubles as the Sociological Imagination.  Debunking Motif: things in sociology are not always what they seem and sociological research  often exposes false claims about reality and taken for granted assumptions about social life and  social institutions.  Deviance: Behavior that violates social norms.   Deviance is relative in space. Meaning what is considered deviant depends on where  the act happens. (ie. Murdering someone in a war gets you a medal, but in your home can get you executed.)  Deviance is also relative in time. What is deviant in one time period, might not be in  another. (ie. Gay marriage.) Social Control: the restraint a society has of behaviors that violate norms. It enforces the customs of societies.  Laws: formal norms that are written down or codified. Classical School of Criminology: 18  century. This method stressed that criminals rationally  choose to commit crime after deciding that the rewards outweigh the risks. Legal punishment  would have to be severe enough to stop these potential criminals  before this crime was blamed on the devil.  Edwin Sutherland: sensitive to the crime­causing or criminogenic conditions of urban  neighborhoods. He looked at how conditions influence criminality and how peer influences are  important.   differential association theory.  Defined criminology as the study of the making of laws and of a society’s reaction to  the breaking of laws.  Social Control or Social Bonding Theory: 1970s. emphasized the criminogenic effects of the  weal bonds to social institutions. This theory focused on social relationships.  Crime: is behavior that is considered so harmful that it is banned by a criminal law.  Consensus Theory: First appears in Durkheim’s work. It assumes a consensus among people  from all walks of life on what the social norms of behavior are and should be.  Conflict Theory: Originates in Marx and Engels works. It is the opposite of consensus theory. It  assumes members of the public disagree on many of society’s norms, with their disagreement  reflecting the different positions of money and power. Goals of Criminal Law: 1) to help keep the public safe from crime and criminals or to prevent  and control crime and criminal behavior. 2) To articulate our society’s moral values and  concerns. 3) to protect the rights and freedoms of the nation’s citizenry by protecting it from  governmental abuse of power.  Mala in se Crimes (evil in themselves): refer to behaviors that violate traditional norms and  moral codes. Direct Victim Mala Prohibita (wrong only because prohibited by law): behaviors that violate contemporary  standards only. (ie. Illegal drug use and white collar crime.) No direct victims. Actus Reus (actual act): refers to the actual criminal act of which the defendant is accused. For a  defendant to be found guilty there must be proof beyond a reasonable doubt that they committed  the criminal act. Mens Rae (guilty mind): refers to criminal intent, which means that the defendant intended to  commit the crime. Also covers reckless behavior or negligence.  Legal Defenses  Accident or Mistake  Ignorance: Didn’t know the law  Duress: You were in fear of your life or your safety  Self­Defense  Entrapment: a person only committed a crime because a law enforcement officer  induced the offender to do so.  Insanity: few criminals actually plead insanity.  Research Methods Used In Criminology  Surveys  Experiments  Qualitative Research: Observing and Intense Interviewing. Longitudinal Studies are  where people are studied over a long period of time.   Research Using Existing Data  Comparative and Historical Research Criminology Chapter 2 Notes Democratic Theory: policy decisions by public officials should reflect public opinion.  politicians are often more influence by the elite than the general public.  Public opinion is often inaccurate.  Overdramatization: Of crime in media because the more dramatic it is, the more captivating to  the audience it will be. The news will also tend to only focus on the most dramatic kinds of  crime.  often very misleading on what the actuality of the crime was. Crime Waves: where a city’s news media will suddenly devote much attention to a small number of crimes to create a false impression that crime is rampant. Even if crime rates are declining the  media will make it seem like the opposite.  Crime Myths: false beliefs about crime that the media instills in us. One myth is that crime is  rampant and overly violent.  Racial and Ethnic Minorities: News will often focus on African American and Latino offenders  and white victims. Over exaggerates the involvement and menacing nature of people of color in  crime. Understates their victimization. Youths: disproportionately portrays young people as offenders. Only about 14% of violent crime  if committed by youth.  Virtuous Victims: The news gives most coverage to victims who seem completely innocent and  pure. (ie. Small children and wealthy white women who both have relatively low victimization  rates.)  Other Media Problems: 1) people interviewed show the reporter’s POV. 2) Using language like  “preying on victims” instead of neutral terms. 3) Presenting misleading data. 4) Neglecting  white­collar crime. 5) Failing to provide social and historical context. 6) Media can often be  biased.  Obscuring Underlying Forces: the media can hide underlying social and cultural forces behind  crime.  Fear of Crime: We are often afraid of crime by strangers when most crimes happen by someone  you know. We are afraid of night, being alone, men over women, new locations.  Structural Factors: A community’s characteristics. (Quality of living, neighborhoods, the  number of people of color, level of urbanization.) People in big cities are more likely to perceive  a higher crime rate.  Consequences of Fear: fear of crime can weaken social ties within a community. Mistrust of  others. Threatens economic value of neighborhoods.  Public Judgments on the Seriousness of Crime: they reflect the value placed on human life and  on personal property. They affect your own views of appropriate punishment. These judgments  influence the penalties made by legislators for violations of criminal laws and the sentences  judges give criminals.   different demographics usually agree on the seriousness of crimes. They have similar  Sentencing Preferences. Punitiveness: judgments of appropriate punishment for convicted criminals. Some people in  society hold more punitive views than others. Racial differences exist in certain views on the  treatment of criminals.   African Americans are less punitive than whites because they think the criminal  justice system in biased. Death Penalty: Men, whites, older people, those with less education, Southerners, political  conservatives, religious fundamentalists, and residence of areas with higher homicide rates and a  higher number of African Americans are more likely to support the death penalty.   Is the death penalty Constitutional? Many people think the criminal justice system in unjust.  Types of Criminal Offenses: Felony, misdemeanor, infractions. Misdemeanor: fine less that  $1,000 and incarceration less than a year.  Most crimes get resolved through a plea bargain. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.