Week 2 Class Notes - Contemporary Issues in Biology (Week of January 19-21)
Week 2 Class Notes - Contemporary Issues in Biology (Week of January 19-21) BIOL 10003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Sawey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Issues in Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Contemporary Issues in Biology Notes: Week 2 January 19, 2015 Class Notes: A vasectomy involves cutting pieces out of both vas deferens. Why does a vasectomy result in sterility? o Sperm cannot move past a certain point What are some of the problems in using PSA test in screening for prostate cancer? o 80% detection – other factors – serious side effects Why is late stage prostate cancer deadly? o Spreads outside the prostate. -Female System Diagram: if you see a label only on a diagram but not anywhere else = do not need to know for test -Pathway of Egg if Unfertilized Follicle of ovary -> oviduct -> uterus -> vagina Oviduct: connects ovaries to uterus, also called the fallopian tubes -Menstrual Cycle Menstrual Cycle: the cyclic buildup and breakdown of the endometrium as the uterus prepares for monthly pregnancy -Age of First Menstrual Cycle Why is the age of first menstrual cycle declining? Food is more readily available – more body fat -Hormones & Menstrual Cycle Lining of endometrium is shed during menstrual cycle Menstrual cycle = 28 days [statistical average] Middle = 14 days : ovulation occurs here o Here there is a big increase of LH & FSH o Estrogen drop at end of cycle = triggers shedding of endometrium Pituitary produces FSH & LH FSH and LH cause follicle to develop and release egg -If the Egg is Fertilized Fertilized egg is planted in endometrium-> embryo sends out hormonal message to the old follicle (corpus leteum) to let it know an embryo is present -> old follicle continues to produce estrogen and progestogen -If the Egg is Not-Fertilized Unfertilized egg does not implant -> no hormonal message -Menopause In a woman’s 40s, estrogen produce declines Symptoms of early menopause (perimenopause) appear -Symptoms of Menopause Hot flashes, dry skin, brittle hair, insomnia, vagina dryness, mood swings, skipped periods -Changing Hormone levels with Menopause Perimenopause transition: right before menopause Osteoporosis: a bone thinning disease menopause accelerates this significantly The reputation of estrogen supplements (hormone replacement therapy) has ping-ponged back and forth -Hormone Replacement Therapy 1960s: accepted Pong: 1970s: discovered that taking estrogen alone increased cancer risk Ping: 1980s and 1990s: Women who took estrogen after menopause were less likely to have heart attacks **Know the 4 estrogen do’s and don’ts January 21, 2016 Class Notes: Human Sexuality During a tubal ligation, a piece of each Fallopian tube is removed. Why would this result in sterility? o Egg cannot leave = no egg to be fertilized What study tested the hypotheses about the effects of HRT and what do scientists call this type of design? o Woman’s Health Initiative ; 2 group experimental design -Two Group Experimental Design (**know for test) Control group: did not receive HRT – given placebo Experimental group” received HRT estrogen & progestogen What are the current recommendations for women taking HRT? What are the dos and don’ts? -Human Sexual Response Male sexual response: excitement phase plateau phase orgasm resolution [must be a refractionary period for a 2 ndorgasm] Female: B: never reaches organs, C: quick then steep resolution Doesn’t have to be a refractory period with women -Types of Sexual Dysfunction Women: low sexual desire (22%), arousal problems, pain during intercourse Men: premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, low sexual desire -Painful Intercourse Decreases with age -Absence of Orgasm Ability to reach orgasm is correlated with levels of education Stimulation results in nerve transmission **cyclic gmp -Physiology of Erection Stimulation increases cyclic GMP (enzyme) in penis and relaxation of smooth muscle increased blood flow into erectile tissue veins carrying blood out shut off -Loss of Erection Lack of sexual stimulation leads ot breakdown of cyclic GMP (enzyme) by PDE5 (another enzyme in penis) -Impotence and Male Age Affects more than 1 in 3 men ages 40 and up -Viagra Enabled 83% of men with ED to have an erection -ED drugs PDE5 inhibitors: Viagra [4-5 hours], Cialis [36 hours], Levitra [4-5 hours] -Discovery of ED Drugs First examined as a drug to help with heart problems drug did not have desired effect Test subjects would not send back test pills Thus, ED drugs were discovered due to serendipity (finding valuable things not sought for) -How ED drugs work [do not have ability to increase cyclic GMP – but can slow down PDE5] ED drugs allow stimulation to increase cyclic gmp -Side Effects of ED Drugs Headaches, upset stomach, runny/stuffy nose Most serious: priapism: an erection that does not end when sexual stimulation ends; may last for hours, damaging tissue and contributing to ED -What if ED drugs don’t work? Vacuum pumps -Abortion: Roe vs. Wade 1973 – Roe vs. Wade legalized abortion nationwide Prior to 1973 – some states had legalized abortion -Changes in Numbers of Abortions 1973: drop in illegal abortions -Types of In-Clinic Abortions Vacuum Aspiration; Dilation and Evacuation -How Abortion Pill works Abortion pill blocks the action of progesterone Lecture 4 Biology Reading Notes: Coping with Sexual Woes The penis functions as a gauge for detecting impending heart problems Flagging eretions affect more than a third of men over 40. ED heralds heart trouble because arties in the penis have about a quarter the diameter of coronary arties Eating better and exercising regularly can not only stave off plaque buildup in arties but reverse it Among medical options, one of the best is to inject a medication such as alprostadil Vacuum pumps put negative pressure on the penise
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