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Lecture 1

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Lecture 1 FNR 251

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About this Document

Origin Lissamphibia
Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Rod N. Williams
Class Notes
Ecology, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources




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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
LECTURE 1: Amphibian and Reptile Evolution The Origin and Evolution of Amphibians (Lissamphibia) Lissamphibia Why land? • Unexploited food resources – Aquatic habitat niches occupied – No predators on land, lots of food sources • Lack of Large Terrestrial Predators – primitive plants & invertebrates • Low O 2n warm water Early T etrapods • Addition of Teeth • Paired fins to limbs • Gills replaced by lungs Early T etrapods • Increased skeletal support • Tongue – increased sensory • Larynx for vocalization • Larger cerebral cortex II. PHYLOGENY: AMPHIBIANS Source: Vertebrate Biology, D. Linzey, 2001. Era and Period Names and their duration in MYA Era Period begin - end (MYA) Extant Quaternary 23.0 - 0.00 Salamanders Cenozoic & Frogs Tertiary 65.5 - 23.8 Cretaceous 146 - 65.5 Mesozoic Jurassic 200 - 146 Triassic 251 - 200 Permian 299 - 251 Carboniferous 359 - 299 Devonian 416 - 359 Paleozoic Silurian 444 - 416 Ordovician 488 - 444 Cambrian 542 - 488 II. PHYLOGENY: AMPHIBIANS Tiktaalik Eryops FNR 251 01/7/2008 Origin of Salamanders Tiktaalik • Late Devonian (375 mya) – Canada • 2004 Discovery • Pre-dated Ichthyostega by 5 my. • 1-2 meters long Tiktaalik • Most remarkable feature: front pair fins with wrist-like structure • Spiracles (primitive nostrils) – lungs as well as gills • 1 tetrapod with: proper neck enabling greater flexibility during short bouts on land Ichthyostega • Late Devonian (370mya) • Greenland, “roof fish” • 5 ft, 50 lbs • Fish & Amphibian features – Webbed feet • Ability to breathe air for short periods Eryops • Permian (270mya) • Crocodile-like early amphibian • Aquatic & Terrestrial • Structurally, some features that would appear in later reptiles Diplocaulus • Middle late Permian (240-230mya) • Greek “double stalk” • Wide V shaped boomerang head – Navigate strong currents – Facilitate rapid opening for suction-gape feeding • 3 ft long, 5-10 lbs Modern Salamander Families • Amphiumidae, Sirenidae: Upper Cretaceous • Cryptobranchidae, Protidae, Salmandridae: Paleocene • Plethodontidae: Pleistocene The Origin of Anura Frog Evolution Trends • Modifications for jumping: – Vertebral column short and inflexible • Reduction Presacral vertebrae • Increase rigidity, absorption of landing • Transfer Energy directly to hindlimbs – Hindlimbs elongated for hopping – Muscles modified for jumping Frog Evolution Trends • Modifications for jumping: – Pelvic girdle enlarged, strengthened, and anchored to vertebral column – No ribs – No tail as adult – Overall body truncated Amphibamus • Late Carboniferous (300mya) • Greek for equal legs • Swamps: Europe & N. America • 6 in, few ounces • 33 Presacral vertebrae Gerobatrachus • Early Permian (290mya) 2008 – Texas • “frogmander”: mixture salamander & frog – 2 fused ankle bones – Backbone intermediate – Large tympanum – Wide froglike skull • Likely transitional form – 240-275 mya splitting frogs and salamander Triadobatrachus • Early Triassic (250mya), Madagascar • Triple frog • “Proto frog” • First fossil “frog” Vieraella • Early Jurassic (~200 mya) – Argentina – Earliest “true” frog • May belong to modern family Leiopelmatidae • Classic froglike head & large eyes • legs modified for jumping Triadobatrachus Vieraella Tibiofibula urostyle Paleobatrachus • Cretaceous to Tertiary (130-5 mya) • “ancient frog”, Europe • Completely aquatic – inhabited swamp basins – Volcanic gases preserved soft tissue • Resembles present day Xenopus Extant Amphibian Lineages


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