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General Chemistry II Lecture Notes: Week #1

by: Lesley Bui

General Chemistry II Lecture Notes: Week #1 Chem 113

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > Chem 113 > General Chemistry II Lecture Notes Week 1
Lesley Bui
GPA 3.6
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About this Document

These are the notes from the first week of lecture; what the professor wrote out in class during lecture.
General Chemistry II
Dr. Kerry MacFarland
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lesley Bui on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 113 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Kerry MacFarland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Ch.12: Thermodynamics Wednesday, January 20, 2016 9:56 AM • Why chemical reactions happen (and physical processes) • Demo: • Spontaneity: A spontaneous process that occurs without ongoing outside intervention ○ Ex. Ball rolling downhill ○ Ex. Water freezing at -10 degrees Celsius ○ Ex. Iron rusting • Reverse of spontaneous process: Nonspontaneous ○ Does not happen on its own ○ not necessarily impossible • Spontaneous reaction ○ May need help getting started ○ Not necessarily fast • What makes a reaction spontaneous? ○ Is a spontaneous reaction equal to and exothermic reaction?  Combustion reaction = yes  Demo reaction = no (spontaneous, but endothermic)  Water evaporating at room temp. = no (spontaneous, but endothermic) ○ NO: spontaneous does not equal exothermic (often but not always) • A clue: ○ In these endothermic spontaneous processes/reaction, theproducts' particles are more spread out and/or have more freedom of motion than the reactants' particles  Solid: vibrational motion  Liquid: also have translational and rotational motion  Gas: much more translational and rotational motion (still vibrating as well) ○ Forming a gas: a lot more freedom of motion, particles are spread out • Entropy (s): a measure of how dispersed the energy of a system is (at a specific temperature) ○ 1st Law of Thermodynamics:energy cannot be created nor destroyed ○ 2nd Law of Thermodynamics:for any spontaneous process, the entropy of theuniverse increases (or an isolated system) ○ 3rd Law of Thermodynamics:  Spontaneous transfer of heat from object with a higher temperature to that of a lower temperature--entropy increases  Can also have energy dispersion even without a temperature difference □ Ex. Mixing ○ Simple model of entropy of mixing ' • Slightly more complicated model CHEM 113 Page 1 CHEM 113 Page 2


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