Chem 111 / week 1-20 notes
Chem 111 / week 1-20 notes 111001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 111001 at Boston College taught by Neil Wolfman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Boston College.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chemistry week of 1/20 Chapter 11: Intro to liquids 1/20/16 Gases are compressible fluids Liquids are NOT compressible because the molecules are more closely packed, but they can still move around a bit Liquids have a definite volume but indefinite shape Solids are NOT compressible, have a fixed volume and shape. Atoms, ion, molecules cannot move freely but can vibrate or oscillate – most closely packed and dense Solid liquid Melting/fusion Liquid solid Freezing Liquid gas Vaporization Gas liquid Condensation Solid gas Sublimation Gas solid deposition Intermolecular forces among liquid molecules Force between molecules is weaker than the force between atoms in a molecule Bond length is shorter than distance between molecules Types of intermolecular forces 1. DipoleDipole: the positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of another higher dipolemoment = higher boiling point Solubility o Polar solutes will dissolve in polar solvent o Nonpolar solutes will dissolve in nonpolar solvents o CANNOT dissolve polar in nonpolar 2. IonDipole 3. London Dispersion 4. Hydrogen Bonding Chapter 11: Intermolecular Forces in Liquids 1/22/16 IonDipole – the positive end to the negative of a ionic compound in a polar solvent London Dispersion – electron density is not distributed evenly, causing a brief dipolemoment/ polarity; all molecules have this Larger atoms = stronger the force Larger molecules = stronger the force *Stronger intermolecular force = higher boiling point *Isomers affect dispersion forces because the different arrangement = different distribution of electrons and different surface area; more surface area = stronger force Hydrogen Bonding – occurs in polar molecules; only between OH / NH / FH Surface Tension – amount of energy it takes to increase the surface area (mJ/m^2). The molecules towards the middle of a solution have no net force For a given volume, a sphere has the lowest surface area = lowest boiling point Greater intermolecular force = greater the surface area Viscosity – resistance to flow. Measured in poise (P) or (g/cm*s) Greater forces = greater viscosity Greater molecular weight = greater viscosity Greater SA of molecule = greater viscosity High temperature = low viscosity
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