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Week 2 Notes

by: Emma Notetaker

Week 2 Notes NSCI 3320

Emma Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover everything we went over in class during the 2nd week of school.
Systems Neuroscience
Laura Schrader
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NSCI 3320 at Tulane University taught by Laura Schrader in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Systems Neuroscience in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
Wednesday, January 20, 2016 Week 2 **there will be labeling on the test!!** Cerebrovascular System • **review figures 58, 60, 61, 62 in atlas (Hendelman)** • medial cortex: controls lower extremities • lateral cortex: controls upper extremities blood needed to supply oxygen to brain • • neuroanatomy • lateral surface: • central sulcus - divides frontal lobe and parietal lobe • lateral (Sylvian) fissure - divides temporal from frontal and parietal • more cortex inside if you open up this fissure (fold it up) called insular cortex: motivation/reward behavior, taste • • not a defined line between parietal and occipital lobe • precentral gyrus: motor cortex • lower limbs represent on medial side of the cortex • upper body represented on lateral side of cortex • postcentral gyrus: somatosensory cortex superior temporal gyrus: auditory • • lobes: • occipital lobe: vision • frontal: executive function • parietal: sensory inputs come together • temporal: hippocampus and amygdala (subcortical) medial surface: • • cingulate cortex: limbic system, decision making • lies right above the corpus calossum • calcarine sulcus: between occipital and temporal • concentration of primary visual cortex • parietooccipital sulcus cuneus: smaller lobe of occipital lobe - vision • • compromise of vasculature: • next 3 things can lead to stroke • 1. aneurysm: dilation of blood vessel • 85% cerebral aneurysms found in internal carotid system • often occur at branch points within the vessels ballooning out is a function of pressure and strain on the vessels • • circle of Willis: many arteries converge - oftentimes location of aneurysm • only bad if it bursts OR putting pressure on specific area • 2. embolism: blockage (occlusion) of cerebral artery (clot, bacteria, plaque, etc) • can lead to ischemia and ultimately infarction (tissue death due to loss of oxygen) • area of brain supplied by artery suffers - decline in fx of those brain areas 3. arteriovenous malformations: developmental dysregulation of formation of • communication between major arteries and veins • causes decrease of blood supply to brain • usually can be corrected by surgery • types of stroke: 1 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • ischemic: block of vasculature stops flow of blood to area of brain • hemorrhagic: blood spills out from vessel, leaks into brain tissue weakened or diseased blood vessels rupture • • blockage of internal carotid: lots more deficit than clot in middle of cerebral artery in brain (leads to less areas, so fewer areas affected by the loss of oxygen) • internal carotid major • brain uses about 20% of the oxygen absorbed by the lungs. • brain tissue deprived of oxygen for less than 1 minute can result in loss of consciousness after 5 minutes of blood deprivation, brain tissue may become permanently damaged. • • blood supply to brain • extremely rich vascularization in the CNS • cerebral cortex and subcortical gray matter very vascularized (less so in white matter) • arteries perforate from small # of arteries and divide into smaller arterioles • density highest in regions containing largest number of neurons and synapses 2 pairs of arteries are major blood supplies to brain: • • internal carotid • internal carotid system: branches into 2 main arteries • branches into middle cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery/anterior cerebral artery • anterior cerebral artery supplies anterior part, goes in between hemispheres supplies to circle of Willis • • vertebral arteries (run up the spinal cord - come together to form basilar artery) • vertebrobasilar system • supply blood to cerebellum and brainstem • converge near base of pons to form basilar • at midbrain, branches into posterior cerebral artery (brainstem) and superior cerebellar artery (cerebellum) • basilar artery supplies some blood to circle of Willis • circle of Willis: PUT CHART IN HERE • interior and basilar arteries supply blood to here • basilar —>posterior cerebral —> posterior communicating • internal carotid —> posterior communicating OR —> anterior cerebral —> anterior communicating • focus on blood supply • internal carotid enters dura near optic chiasm (brainstem) • major branches of internal carotid: • anterior cerebral artery (terminal branch): two sides • joined together by anterior communicating artery • area of aneurysms - 30-35% of intracranial aneurysms found on anterior communicating OR where if joins cerebral artery • aneurysms cause visual deficits due to proximity to optic chiasm • provides blood to MEDIAL surface of cerebral hemisphere (frontal and parietal lobes) • blood supply to anterior and posterior paracentral gyrus • anterior (lower extremity portion of motor cortex) 2 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • posterior (lower extremity part of somatosensory cortex) • bloody supply to optic chiasm and hypothalamus middle cerebral artery (terminal branch) • • branches: • inferior branch: temporal lobe blood supply • superior branch: frontal and parietal lobe blood supply (precentral and post central cortices) • provides blood to lateral surface of cerebral hemisphere AND insular cortex precentral gyrus: upper extremities of motor cortex • • postcentral gyrus: somatosensory • temporal gyri: auditory cortex • lenticulostriate arteries: supply striatum and thalamus areas (subcortical) • lenticular nucleus = putamen • posterior cerebral artery: supplies: • • back part of brain (posterior cerebral cortex) • occipital lobe/visual cortex • caudal part of medial surface • midbrain/pons • some of diencephalon calcarine artery: primary visual cortex • • branches from the basilar artery • minor branches: • ophthalmic artery: supplies blood to retina • compromise can result in visual loss • posterior communicating: part of circle of willis • anterior choroidal: supplies blood to choroid plexus of lateral ventricles • calcarine artery: important for visual cortex • vertebral artery: • supplies medulla, some cerebellum and posterior dura • basilar artery supplies: • ventral/lateral cerebellum • pons • choroid plexus of 4th ventricle • veins and sinuses: • venous blood from deep and superficial veins enters dural sinuses which empty into internal jugular vein (gets blood away from brain) • superior and interior sagittal sinus - attaches to free edges of fax cerebra • superior outlines dura mater on dorsal surface • inferior: outlines on ventral surface • straight sinus: where tantrum cerebella (dura mater between cerebellum and cerebrum)meets fall cerebri) • between cerebellum and cerebrum • come together at confluence of sinuses Telencephalon • 85% weight of brain 3 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • development: • derived from prosencephalon telencephalic vesicles (2) form about 5 weeks from gestation (wrap out and around • diencephalon) • lateral ventricles develop inside the vesicles • striatum (basal telencephalon) beings to form when diencephalon forms • from floor or lateral ventricles • internal capsule divides into caudate and putamen separates thalamus and striatum • • anterior commissure arises within lamina terminalis • lamina terminalis most rostral part of neural tube • disorders: • lissencephaly: smooth brain (no sulci or gyri) - failure of migration of radial glia • pachygyria: large gyri, but fewer microgyria: small gyri in great numbers • • lobes (6) • frontal • lateral surface: • Broca’s area: • inferior frontal gyrus - made up of the 3 pars: pars opercularis • • pars triangularis • pars orbitalis • left hemisphere • Broca’s aphasia: difficulty in expressing ideas or concepts into coherent sentences • medial surface: • cingulate sulcus - sulcus dividing frontal lobe from limbic lobe/cingulate gyrus • callosal sulcus - divides corpus callosum from cingulate gyrus • lamina terminalis - circumventricular organ which lacks BBB • runs from interventricular foramen down to the optic stalk • during development, the most rostral tip of the neural tube • ventral surface: • olfactory sulcus: divides orbital gyri from gyrus rectus • hold olfactory bulbs • gyrus rectus (more lateral) • orbital gyri (more medial) • parietal: polymodal area (brings together most sensory information) • lateral surface: • postcentral gyrus - holds primary somatosensory cortex • posterior paracentral lobule - most of the parietal cortex (that’s not post central) • angular gyrus - wraps around superior temporal sulcus • intraparietal sulcus - middle of lobe • different functions of areas around this sulcus - eye directed movement • Wernicke’s area (supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus) • Wernicke’s aphasia: cannot understand what they hear, can’t read or write, and make no sense when they speak • due to the closeness to the temporal lobe • medial surface: • precuneus - polymodal information 4 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • in front of cuneus in occipital lobe • temporal lateral surface: • • bounded by Lateral/Sylvian sulcus and collateral sulcus (ventral surface) • superior temporal gyrus - auditory information • superior temporal sulcus - separates middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus • middle temporal gyrus - visual information (outside of primary visual areas) inferior temporal gyrus - visual information (outside of primary visual areas) • • face and object recognition - ultimately feeds into hippocampus • ventral surface: • collateral sulcus - divides temporal from limbic lobe • occipitotemporal gyri • hippocampus occipital (most caudal portion) • • lateral • preoccipital notch • primary visual cortex at most caudal point of lateral surface • medial surface: • parieto-occipital sulcus - separates cuneus from precuneus (and parietal from occipital) • calcarine sulcus: separates cuneus fron lingual gyrus (on ventral side of occipital) • primary visual cortex - direct inputs from the thalamus to visual cortex • insular • cortical structure that is internal - see when open lateral fissure • gustatory information - taste • roles in reward circuitry • partner bonding and attachment functions • limbic • surrounds midbrain area • medial: • cingulate gyrus (right above corpus calossum - wraps around) • anterior cingulate gyrus • ventral • collateral sulcus • rhinal sulcus - olfactory information in rhinal areas • parahippocampal gyrus • uncus • sulci: • central - divides frontal and parietal • lateral (Sylvian) - divides temporal and frontal/parietal • parieto-occipital - divides parietal/temporal from occipital (more on medial surface) • preoccipital notch - divides temporal and occipital • draw line between pre occipital and parieto-occipitaq to really divide • not a real dividing line between temporal and parietal • lots of polymodal association areas - multi sensory function • white matter: connects gray matter • 1. association fibers connect various areas of cortex within same hemisphere • cingulum (medial surface) - connecting all the lobes, runs through cingulate gyrus 5 Wednesday, January 20, 2016 • longitudinal fasciculi • superior (lateral surface) - connects frontal, parietal and occipital lobes inferior (medial surface) - connects ventral temporal lobe to occipital • • uncinate fasciculus- connects frontal lobe and tip of temporal • arcuate fasciculus -connects frontal and posterior temporal lobe • 2. commisural fibers: cross hemispheres to connect them • corpus callosum • anterior commisure - connects frontal and temporal lobes (on medial surface) hippocampal commissure (on medial surface) - communicates between two • hippocampi • 3. projection fibers: • internal capsule - communicates between cortex and thalamus • autism theory: white matter connections underdeveloped • could be why they are so smart still - their frontal lobes are fully developed but lack the connections to the rest of the brain • basal telencephalon • basal nuclei (basal ganglia) • thalamus is the most internal part, globes pallidus and putamen most external • collection of subcortical structures • 1. corpus striatum neostriatum: • • 1. caudate nucleus • lateral wall of 3 ventricle • wraps around diencephalon and follows corpus callosum • made up of head, body and tail • motor function, cognitive function • head degenerates in Huntington’s • 2. putamen - lies internal to caudate (2 segments) • paleostriatum: • globus pallidus (inernal to putamen) - wraps around thalamus • 2. nucleus accumbens - rostral • addiction circuitry • substantia innominata • parahippocampal gyrus: • subiculum • dentate gyrus • hippocampus proper - lies just ventral to tail of caudate • fornix: major output pathway (to rest of brain) • wraps around, follows lateral ventricle • fembria: arises from hippocampus • crus: where it turns • body: most ventral - right above corpus callosum • columns • amygdala: • almond-shaped structure at tip of hippocampus • stria terminalis: major output from amygdala to hypothalamus 6


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