ANT 215 Week 1&2 Notes
ANT 215 Week 1&2 Notes ANT 215
Popular in Origins of Civilization
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Archaeology: study of human past and cultures by examining remains • Prehistoric: studies of people who lived before development of writing • Historic: studies societies with written records and uses historical records Ethnographic analogy: looking at living cultures/tools and think of how they were used to interpret past cultures Experimental archaeology: conducting mini-experiments to study other cultures and their way of life Locating sites : Considerations: • Where would you live? • Flat land rather than steep slopes • Close to water/between riverbeds Options: • Surface survey: walking ground area with other people, recording artifacts found; superficial investigation • Dig test pits: digging holes approx. 10m apart to survey area; recording and plot where artifacts were found help create a layout of site • Remote sensing: acquiring information on an object without physical contact; opposite of test pits/surface survey o Aerial sensing: photographing land areas (vertical—straight down from plane to give birds-eye-view or oblique—allows for wider view to better survey area) o LiDAR: laser pulses from airplane to group and pulses record topographical outlines • Image: Left shows the dense forests because laser detecting trees, Right filtered out forest and reveals location/markings of site • Space/Satellite: i.e. Google Earth • GPS: use of microwaves allows enter exact location coordinates of sites/discoveries • GIS: compiles all GPS locations to give map of area NON-Aerial sensing • GPR (ground penetrating radar): radio signals into ground and recorded differently if hit object • Electrical resistance: detects site underground, gives output of objects other than soil • Magnetic Resistivity: records magnetic field of area around object After locating sites, use excavation to uncover findings Types of excavation • Keyhole/test pits: 1.5 sq. ft. • Horizontal: creating a grid over the area and digging a given depth in even sections • Vertical: digging a long trench through a site; recording the depth the object was found to determine time frame it’s from Age Determination B.P. is before present B.C. based on modern Christian calendar 4000 B.P. = 2000 BC • Relative Dating: doesn’t give exact dates; only tells you if object is younger/older than other object o Stratigraphy: different spread/soil levels occurred over time o Law of Superposition: layers farthest from the surface will be the oldest, while layers near the top are generally younger o Seriation: placing similar objects in order of time and how it’s changed (temporal placement—use of absolute dating in conjunction improves results) • Absolute dating: gives precise dates of objet o Carbon-14 dating: up to 40,000 years old; uses half-life of carbon to determine age o Potassium Argon: volcanic rock/ash, 100,000 years to billions of years; dates the layer remains are found in to determine how old object is o Thermo luminescence: lights object to give flashes of light to determine age based on minerals, 5,000-200 years’ old o Dendrochronology: (cross-dating) if same type of tree, comparing the rings allow us to piece the different samples together to show how old/time period found from 1/19/2016 Characteristics of Neanderthals Way of life/technologies stayed constant for thousands of years By asking the question “What started the human spark?”, we are actually determining when we started to evolve and change technologies/processes Main topics of Video: • Language • Increased technology • Adaptation to environment • Art/jewelry o Adapt to social groups, determine social status/power, symbolic views used the same way neckties today • Use of symbols o Adapt to natural environment by distinguishing trade relationships, similar groups • Trade networks o Connected people far from each other that shared ideas • Human thoughts to use symbols to tell stories/backgrounds • Brain development o Varies by time it takes to develop (gradual increase after birth) • Evidence that supports mating of Neanderthals/human descendants 1/21/2016 Upper Paleolithic Time Period (40,000-10,000 years ago) • Neanderthals extinct, modern human expanded out of Africa • Blade (longer than wide) technology, composite tools (drilling, hiding) • Domestication (dogs 12k ya) o Human intervention to breed animals/plants with certain characteristics • Art in caves/portable • Extinction of Megafauna (saber tooth/mammoth) o Overkill hypothesis that humans over-hunted them o Possible disease the wiped them out o Environmental change wiped out their resources § Very possible for combination of all three 5 cultural periods 1. Chateperronian: extended Neanderthal traditions, transition period 2. Aurignacian: first humans in Europe (35k ya); tools become more efficient and varied compared to Neanderthals; better adaptation to environment; trade networks; prismatic blade technology (using block and chip off edges make tools/spear heads); tailored clothing allows for migrating north, could explain expansion to Siberia; art (fashioned from red oak/mammoth ivory) engraved figurines or cave paintings/engravings 3. Gravettian (28k ya): art, objects that aren’t essential for every day tasks; each group is becoming more distinct/specialized; some semi- sedentary (near rivers for several months) and constructing/maintain buildings; textile/basket weaving; storage of meat (in permafrost); broad diet (diversifying diet by eating fish/smaller animals) more complex hunting, see use of projectile weapons (atlatl) and smaller tips suggest bow & arrow; elaborate burial behaviors, including ornamentations/artifacts; portable art including mammoth ivory could represent social/symbolic activity, (Venus figurines: W. E. Central Euopre; some modeled after real people) 4. Solutrean (21k ya): heat-treated flint to fashion objects 5. Magalenian (17k ya): larger increase in long distance trade networks (435mi), suggested to open societies; developed harpoons; site sizes increased; cave art increases (90% in W. Europe was made in this period); secondary burial being used (burring once when dead, then at 2 a later time move them to burial mounds); more advances in technology (atlatl: spear thrower) Environment • Warming period: partially melted ice in European; Eurasia covered in tundra/steppe • Growth of animals à attracted animalsà better hunting (exploited fishing/waterfowl for first time) • Highest population density, resulted from more spreading • Adapations: better clothing, good hunting techniques Known for: • “age of technology” • Solutrean blades: heat-treated flint that resulted in better edges/objects as whole with best edges seen, thought unlikely to use in utilitarian way • Artistic expression o Engravings on tools o Beads—made of teeth/shells o Cave art § SW France/ N Spain § Lascaux Cave (France): consisted of bulls, horses drawn in red, black, or yellow § Grotte Cave: 30,000, human handprints, lions, horses, owls, bears, rhino § Altamira (Spain): mainly bison (red/black ink), painters used natural bulges of cave walls to give paintings depth § Meanings • Aesthetic: it was fun, enjoyable • Religious: shamanism (one who acts in-between world and spirit, animal spirit guide) • Some paintings were predators rather than who they hunted, this idea created a theory of shamans to capture the animals power to spiritual purposes 3 • Used form of art as hunting magic, hunters would gain the power to kill the animal by looking at the wall • Fertility magic: pregnant/mating paintings • Visual communication: teaching/reference guide to tell time of season for animals, right of initiation/hunting guide for young hunters o Venus Figures § Exaggerated sexual characteristics § Glorified and symbolized pregnancy, fertility, childbirth § Represented all ages; most common was not-pregnant females § Sex objects: male-centric ideas that women were passive § Distortions: large breasts/thighs, pregnant abdomen, legs blend into breasts, feet too small § Distortions disappear if looking at object as if women was looking at self while creating them, leads to self- representation for women; wanted to preserve knowledge of self § Created during a time period while population increased Early African Art (compared to upper Paleolithic) • Rock art in Namibia ( • Congo: the stone technology in this area reviled upper Paleolithic, (180-75k ya) earlier than U.P. was rival; Africa should be recognized as area of biological evolution and development of human culture Paleolithic: Old stone age Mesolithic: Middle stone age Neolithic: New stone age (started with intro to agricultu re) 4
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