Practical Reasoning in Natural Language
Practical Reasoning in Natural Language PHL 264-01
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 264-01 at La Salle University taught by Joseph A Volpe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Basic Analysis of Reasoning 1-‐1 What is Reasoning • The Distinction Between a Sentence and a Statement Sentence: A single sentence can contain more than one statement Statement: The unit of attention “Take your sweater, its cold outside.” Single sentence with two statements What is important is the relationships are between all statements • Discourse Allow an easy way to refer to what we are looking at Sentence or a series of sentences • Reason Any statement that’s given in support for, justification for, or evidence for some other statement • Conclusion Statement that is supported by a reason(s) • Reasoning Any discourse in which some statement is given as a reason for some other statement that is a conclusion Can be contained in a single sentence • Argument Alternative way in talking about some reasoning (premises=reasons) th Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas • Inference Indicators These indicators are not a reliable guide to see if there is any reasoning -‐ Reasons As (Many Follows From Seeing That May Be Deduced Exceptions) From Since (Many Being That For The Reasons May Be Derived Exceptions) That From For (Many Being As In The View Of The Whereas (In Legal Exceptions) Fact That Documents) Because (Most Inasmuch As On The Correct In The Second Place Reliable) Supposition That As Shown By In The First Place Assuming, As We Secondly May, That AS Indicated By Firstly May Be Inferred From -‐ Conclusions Consequently Implies That Leads Me To Believe That Therefore Entails That Bears Out That Which Shows That Accordingly Thus (Frequent Exceptions) Proves That I Conclude That Demonstrates That Hence Points To The Conclusion It Follows That th Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas That Must (Some Exceptions) Allows Us To Infer That In This Way One Sees That You See That Suggests Very Strongly That Then (Without Preceding ‘If’ or ‘When’) • The Distinction Between Explanations and Justifications Reasoning is about justifying and does not about explaining Explanations: Causal account of something of hoe it came to be Justifications: a claim or assertion is to give grounds, evidence, or reasons, of any other sot intended to convince others of its truth Explanations are given as a reason for something else to be true • Helpful Hints -‐ The presence in a discourse of a word or phrase from either of the lists of inference indicators is a good clue that the discourse contains reasoning, but there are many exceptions -‐ Conditional (“if, then”) sentences, in themselves, are no instances of reasoning -‐ Some reasoned discourses contain NO inference indicator words -‐ Reasoning, including both reasons and conclusions, may be contained in a single sentence -‐ A sentence or discourse that DOES NOT contain reasoning may quote, directly or indirectly, a discourse that does contain reasoning th Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas -‐ The difference between reasoning and nonreasoning is not always clear-‐ cut; some discourses are borderline -‐ The mere fact that a discourse expresses someone’s “conclusion” about something is not enough for the discourse to qualify as reasoning 1-‐2 Reasons and Conclusions • Arrow Diagram The arrow indicates that an inference is being drawn and it is always going to be pointing to some statement that is some kind of conclusion Reason (R) Conclusion (C) • Basic Reason Statement that is offered in support for, justification for, or evidence for some other statement or conclusion A reason for which no reason is offered (statements that initiate the reason) A reason that itself is unsupported • Intermediate Conclusion Statement that is supported by a reason Though it is a statement that is supported by a reason, it then is going to be supported as a reason for some further conclusion. R 1 C th Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas C 2 • Final Conclusion A conclusion that is being supported by a reason(s) that itself supports no further conclusion Reasoning can include more than one final conclusions • Hints About Inference Indicators -‐ When the Inference Indicators For introduces a reason, it indicates that the conclusion was a statement that appears Earlier in the discourse. -‐ When any of the words Hence, Thus, Consequently, So or Therefore is used as a conclusion indicator, Generally it signals that at least some of the reasons for that conclusion appeared somewhere Earlier in the discourse -‐ When any of the words Since, As, Because is used to indicate a reason, the conclusion being supported is stated in Another Clause of the very same statement • Other Useful Tips -‐ Generally, when sentences of the form “When A, then B” or “B when A” are encountered, do not split them into two statements -‐ Always remember that is a discourse does contain reasoning but its context and inference indicators leave the analysis of its reasoning open to a variety of interpretations choose the interpretation that results in the strongest possible reasoning. th Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas -‐ Many discourses that contain reasoning will also containing statements that are neither reasons nor conclusions. That is, there are often statements in a reasoned discourse that are not part of the reasoning at all. -‐ Sometimes the conclusions of a reasoned discourse are expressed in the form of imperative sentences rather than declarative sentences. 1-‐3 Determining the Logical Structure of a Reasoned Discourse • Serial Reasoning This is the simplest form of reasoning. Think a linear straight line that varies in length R R R C 1 1 C C 2 2 C C Etc. • Divergent Reasoning A reason or reasons in support of multiple logically independent conclusions Can include many conclusions R C 1 2 • Linked Reasoning th Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas Multiple logically dependent reasons offered in support of a common conclusion Can include many reasons for one conclusion R 1 + 2 R C • Convergent Reasoning Multiple logically independent reasons in support of a common conclusion Can include many reasons for one conclusion 1 R R 2 C TRY NOT TO GET LINKED REASONING AND CONVERGENT RESONING CONFUSED • The Procedure Step 1: Circle all inference-‐indicator words Step 2: Enclose the separate statements constituting the discourse in angle brackets and number them Step 3: Supply and circle any inference-‐ indicator words that do not appear but are clearly suggested Step 4: Set forth the numbered statement of the discourse in an “arrow diagram” using arrows to show the inferences Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas Look Out for Index cards for 1-‐1, 1-‐2, and 1-‐3 (All ) Practical Reasoning in Natural Language 4 Edition Stephen Naylor Thomas
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