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SOC101 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Madeline Sittason

SOC101 Chapter 1 Notes PHL 292

Madeline Sittason
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These are the notes I took for Chapter 1
Introduction to Ethics
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Sittason on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 292 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 1 Sociology in a Changing World  Sociology – systematic study of the relationship between individuals and society.  Sociological perspective – to see and understand the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live  Sociological imagination – C Wright Mills, enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within a society  Modernity – characterized by the growth of democracy and personal freedom, increased reliance on reason and science to explain the natural and social worlds, and a shift toward an urban industrial economy  Industrial revolution – collection of major developments that transformed rural agricultural societies into urban industrial societies  Industrialization – use of large-scale machinery for the mass manufacture of consumer goods  Urbanization – the growth of cities  Positivism – a belief that accurate knowledge must be based on the scientific method  Comte – stability and change, coined the term SOCIOLOGY  Spencer – society as a social organism, letting the weak perish so the strong can survive  Spencer and Comte helped to define the terrain of sociology  Key Founders; Marx, Durkheim, and Weber  Marx – the answer could be found in the relationship between capitalists, who owned the means of production, and the laborers (proletariat), who worked for wage  Durkheim – social solidarity o Social solidarity – the collective bonds that connect individuals o Collective conscience – shared values of a society o Anomie – normlessness, without moral guidance  Weber – the protestant ethic and the rationalization of modern life, verstehen o Rationalization of society – the long-term historical process by which rationality replaced tradition as the basis for organizing social and economic life  Harriet Martineau – gender discrimination  WED Du Bois – Racial Inequality  Jane Addams – Urban Social Problems  George Mead – interactionist perspective  Social theory – set of principles and propositions that explains the relationships among social phenomena  Conflict – tensions and disputes in society, often resulting from the unequal distribution of scarce resources, which can contribute to social change  Consensus – solidarity and cooperative interaction, often due to shared values and interests, can contribute to social stability  Objective conditions – material aspects of social life, including the physical environment, social networks, and social institutions  Subjective dimension – involves the world of ideas, including our sense of self, social norms, values, and belief system  Macro level of analysis – focus on large scale social systems and processes such as the economy, politics, and population trends  Manifest functions – the recognized and intended consequences of social phenomena  Structural-functionalist theories – focuses on consensus and cooperative interaction in social life, emphasizing how different elements that make up a society’s structures contribute to its overall operation  Functionalist theothes – were dominant in the united stated in the middle of the 20 century  Manifest functions – the recognized and intended consequences of social phenomena  Latent functions – their largely unrecognized and unintended consequences  Dysfunctional – inhibiting or disrupting the working of a system as a whole  Culture – the collection of values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, language, behaviors, and material objects shared by a people and socially transmitted from generation to generation  Structure – refers to the recurring patterns of behavior in social life  Power – the ability to bring about an intended outcome, even when opposed by others  Post modernity – historical period beginning in the middle twentieth century characterized by the ride of information based economics and the fragmentation of political beliefs and ways of knowing  Functionalist perspective emphasizes how parts of a society are structured to maintain stability


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