Teaching Grammar Week One
Teaching Grammar Week One EN 2503
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Pate Skidmore on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EN 2503 at Mississippi State University taught by Ashley Leonard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Teaching Grammar in Education and Teacher Studies at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Subjects and Verbs Wednesday, January 13, 2016 Subjects and Predicates - A subject is what is talked about in a sentence - A predicate says something about the subject CompleteSubject and Complete Predicate - The completesubject contains the basic/simple subject and all the words that relate to the subject - The completepredicate contains the simple predicate (verb) and all the words that relate to it - A tall man with red hair walked into a restaurant Finding a Subject - To find a subject, as who or what the sentence is about; the subject performs the action - Most sentences follow a subject - verb order; however, there are other sentences that alter this order - Here and there are never subjects - Questions also follow the same rules - Another problem area when locating subjects is distinguishing subjects from prepositional phrases - The subject of a sentence never appears in a prepositional phrase - A prepositional phrase is a modifying phrase containing a preposition and its object - A comprehensivelist of prepositions is found on p.61-62 - Ex: about, above, during, across, among, to, behind, beside, between, by, from, in, of ○ When looking for the subject of a sentence, it is helpful to cross out prepositional phrases Recognizing Verbs - To find the verb in a sentence, ash what the subject says about the subject or what action the subject performs - Not all verbs show action. Linking verbs like the subject to another word, phrase, or clause that names or describes it - The various forms of the verbs be ○ Is, was, are, am, were, being, and been) are the most common ○ Chart on p.6 has a more comprehensivelist of linking verbs, sometimesknown as feeling verbs (ex: seems) - Besides action and linking verbs, auxiliary verbs precede the main verb and help it do its job; also known as helping verbs ○ Is working, will complete ○ Chart on p.7 for a morecomprehensivelist of auxiliary verbs Recognizing compound subjects and compound verbs - Compound subjects: ○ Amy and Harvey ○ Jon, Betty, nor Eric - Compound verbs: ○ The dancer stumbled and fell ○ The performer sings well but dances poorly Compliments Wednesday, January 20, 2016 9:04 AM Recognizingcompliments - A complementis a word that completes the meaning of the subject and the predicate - Types ○ Direct object ○ Indirect object ○ Predicate nominatives ○ Predicate adjectives - To find D.O. ask whom or what ○ Direct objects follow action verbs as they are nouns that are acted upon. They never appear after a linking verb ○ Ex: The animal is a deer No direct object because no action verb ○ Ex: Jamie swims everyday. No direct object ○ Checklist 1. Be a naming word (noun) 2. Be in the predicate 3. Follow an action 4. Answer whom or what after the action verb - Indirect Objects ○ Most sentences do not contain indirect objects because only a few verbs can take them, such as give, bring, buy, throw, and award ○ The indirect object is always located in the sentence before the direct object Ex: The committeeawarded Sara the prize ○ Sentences with in direct objects may be phrased differently and often are The QB threw his receivera perfect pass (IO receiver) The QB threw a perfect pass to his receiver (replaces IO with a wordy prepositional phrase) ○ Checklist 1. Be a naming word 2. Be in the predicate 3. Follow an action verb 4. Answers to whom or for whom - Predicate nominatives ○ We have learned that only action verbs can take direct and indirect objects. However, linking verbs take complementsalso, such as the predicate nominative ○ A predicate nominative also referred to as a predicate noun, is a naming word (noun or pronoun) that follows a linking verb and renames the subject Ex: Delana Martinez is a psychologist □ Subject: Delana Martinez □ Verb: is □ Pred. nom.: Psychologist □ Psychologist renames Delana Martinez - Predicate adjectives ○ Like predicate nominatives,predicate adjectives also follow linking verbs ○ A predicate adjective is a word (adjective) that usually follows a linking verb. It qualifies, limits, or describes (modifies) Ex: Melanie is happy Ex: Melanie is happy □ Subject: melanie □ Verb: is □ Pred. adj.: happy ○ Checklist 1. Be an adjective 2. Be in the predicate part of the sentence 3. Follow a linking verb 4. Modify the subject Ex: Johnny Depp was the star of the movie. □ Subject: Johnny Depp □ Verb: was □ Pred. adj.: star Parts of Speech Friday, January 22, 2016 9:04 AM - Nouns ○ Naming words: People Places Things Ideas ○ Since a noun is a naming word, a noun can appear in a number of places in a sentence. ○ Even though subjects are naming words as well, a subject is a word that tells what is talked about in a sentence Ex: Jenny lent Keisha the book for class. Jenny, Keisha, book, class are all nouns; Jenny is the subject ○ Proper nouns name a specific person, place, or thing and are capitalized ○ Count vs. Non-count Nouns A countnoun may be singular or plural, and it exists separately as an individual unit □ Clock vs Clocks □ Desk vs. Desks □ Glass vs. Glasses □ Box vs. Boxes □ Man vs. Men □ Lettuce vs. Lettuces (a commonESL --English as a Second Language-- mistake) A non-countnoun is uncountable because they are units, not divisible into parts. In English,, these are usually considered singular and take similar verbs, such as luggage, equipment, coal, water, rice, and coffee It is especially important to consider the use of many and much with count nouns and non-count nouns. Many is always used to describe count nouns and much is always used to describe non-count nouns □ Ex: there are many clocks on that wall □ Ex: Much machinery is needed to cultivate the land - Pronouns ○ Naming words that are used to take the place of nouns ○ Subjects, DOs, and IOs will always be nouns or pronouns Ex: His, her, him, hers, it, etc - Adjectives ○ Words that describe, clarify, or limit (modify) a noun or pronoun ○ They answer Which one? What kind? How many? How much? Whose? ○ Articles (a, an, the) are always used as adjectives. A and an are singular while the can be either singualr or plural ○ Possessivepronouns His, your, my, her, our, their, its, are as much pronouns as adjectives - Verbs ○ Remember:there are different kinds of verbs -- action, linking, and auxiliary (helping) ○ They are either regular or irregular, and they have tense, voice,and number Regular verbs ○ Regular verbs Forms the simple past and past participle by adding -ed to the simple present and it forms the present participle by adding -ing to the simple present □ Ex: I play today (simple present); I played today (simple past) □ I have played (past participle) □ I am playing (present participle) ○ Irregular Verbs Usually forms its simple past and past participle by changing a vowel of the simple present. The present participle of an irregular verb is formed in the same manner as a regular verb, by adding -ing to the simple present. □ I begin today □ I began today ○ Interesting tip Young children beginning the process of language acquisition quickly learn both the informal and formal rules that govern a language, Thus, if a child learns that, in most cases, the past tense of a verb is formed by adding -ed, he or she will often over apply that rule to all verbs learning the exception to that rule ESL students who are learning a new language may exhibit this same thing ○ Simple Tenses Past: indicates an action completed at a specific time in the past □ I swam yesterday Present:indicates an action that is going on at the present time or that occurs habitually □ I swim every day Future: indicates and action that will take place in the future □ I will swim tomorrow ○ Perfect Tenses Past: indicates an action completed before a specific time in the past □ The girl had swum before her classes began Present: indicates an action that is completedat the present time or that is continuing into the present □ He has swum for many years Future: indicates an action that will be completed before a specific time in the future □ We will have swum before lunch tomorrow ○ Progressivetenses (be + present participle) Past: continuing action, something that was happening, going on, at some point in the past □ I was swimming Present: continuing action, something going on now □ I am swimming Future: continuing action, something that will be happening, going on, at some point in the future □ I will be swimming ○ Perfect progressivetense (form of have + been + present participle) Past: continuous action that was competed as some point in the past □ She had been swimming Present: continuous action that has been finished as some point in the past or that was initiated in the past and continues to happen □ She has been swimming Future: indicates a continuous action that will be completedat some point in the future □ She will have been swimming - Adverbs - Prepositions - Prepositions - Conjunctions - interjections