BIOL 1030 Week 2 Lecture Notes
BIOL 1030 Week 2 Lecture Notes BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cox on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Review from 1/14 Lecture o Systematics Taxonomy – naming of things Classification Phylogeny Similarities o Morphology, physiological, behavioral, molecular Homologous – from the same origin; what we look for when classifying species Analogous – similar in function but not in origin Plesiomorphic – not recently evolved characteristic Apomorphic – more recently evolved characteristic; tend to look more at this when grouping Symplesiomorphic Synapomorphic – shared derived features; help us sort out the groups within Autapomorphic – one characteristic that more or less defines a group Monophyletic – one common ancestor from which all members of a group have descended o Holophyletic – all descendants of the single common ancestor included o Paraphyletic – only includes some of the descendants of the common ancestor (side-branch) Polyphyletic – more than one ancestor 2 competing philosophies in systematics o cladistics o evolutionary Survey o Domain – 3 Archaea – Prokaryotic – molecular distinction sets archaea apart from bacteria Bacteria – Prokaryotic – molecular distinction sets bacteria apart from archaea Eukarya – Eukaryotic – we will be spending most of the semester with Eukarya o Kingdoms – 6+ Archaebacteria Eubacteria Fungi Protista* Plantae Animalia o Phylum level diversity “prokaryotic” char/voc o diversity! – 2 domains , 2+ kingdoms o unicellular small – most 1-5 micrometers o shapes coccus (pl. –i); spherical baccilus (pl. –i); elongated, oval shaped spirillus (pl. –i); cork-screw shaped, twisted o coloniality solitary colonial – single celled organisms characteristically found in a group strepto—chain-like colony form staphylo – clustered colony form o cell wall – different from eukaryotes, variable within archaea and bacteria Gram stain – pos/negative (p. 557) peptidoglycans o Capsule o Fimbria (pl. –ae) o Pilus (pl. -i) “Sex” pilus – extend from cell and allow cells to exchange DNA o motility flagellum (pl. –a) different from flagella of sperm or protozoa; rotate rather than undulate taxis – either positive or negative (ex. Photo-, chemo-, etc) gliding 1/21 Lecture Nostoc commune – star jelly, witch’s butter, mare’s eggs, monsterboogers (species) o Nostoc (genus) o Nostocaceae (family) o Nostocales (order) o Cyanophyceae (class) o Cyanobacteria (phylum) o Eubacteria (kingdom) o Bacteria (domain) Genome – all of the DNA molecules and all of the chromosomes o Nucleoid – where the DNA is found in prokaryotes Ring shaped DNA o Plasmids Smaller, also ring shaped , transferable o Reproduction Asexual – cell produces another cell mitosis – cell divides producing two identical cells binary fission budding cloning conjugation – exchange plasmids; closest thing to sex bacteria have; use the sex pilus transformation – pick up extra plasmids from live or dead material transduction – virus carries a plasmid from one type of bacterium to another yielding changes that cross over species lines endospores – produced by bacteria; thick wall with high resistance to adverse environmental effects o dispersal – way nonmobile creatures get from one place to another o resistance – o dormancy – no metabolism until right conditions arise Nutritional Modes o Heterotrophic – Free-living – live on their own and eat things around them; mostly eat dead stuff; DECOMPOSERS Symbiotic – mutualistic (both organisms benefit), pathogenic (pathogen feed on live organism) o Autotrophic – organisms make their own food from inorganic molecules Photoautotrophs -- Chemoautotrophs Photoheterotrophic – use light energy but get carbon from different source o Oxygen relationships Aerobic – live with oxygen Anaerobic – live without oxygen Strict (obligate) aerobes – have to have oxygen to survive Strict (obligate) anaerobes – oxygen is poison to them Facultative – can survive with or without oxygen Ecological relationships o Mutualists – live with other organisms in a beneficial way o Pathogens – feed on other organisms in a harmful way o Decomposers – feed on dead organisms o Biofilms (waste of one is food of another) – one bacteria with another bacteria – what one needs, the other has produced as a waste; mostly found on surface of water or under surface of water Domain Archaea o Usually 1 – 4+ kingdoms – K. Archaebacteria o Extremophiles Thermophiles – live in extremely hot temperatures Halophiles – live in extremely salty environments o Methanogens – organisms that make methane in the form of swamp gas (natural gas; fossil fuel) (Methane is the smallest organic molecule) anaerobic o Non-extreme Archaea Domain Bacteria o 1 to many kingdoms o K. Eubacteria Cyanobacteria (phylum) – blue-green “algae” Photosynthetic Nitrogen fixation – atmospheric nitrogen N2 NO3 Similar to chloroplasts – *serial endosymbiosis – hypothesis about the origin of eukaryotic organelles (p. 516, 576) Ptoeobacteria (phylum) Most are gram negative E. coli – Escherischia coli Coliform bacteria – lives in the colon Purple-green bacteria – similar to mitochondria Nitrogen fixing bacteria Spirochetes Spirillum shape Causes many diseases such as syphilis, lime disease, etc. Gram positive Chlamydias Gram positive Mycoplasmas Smallest, no cell wall (genetically gram positive but because no cell wall, gram negative) Some are free-living Many are pathogens – walking pneumonia
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