Chapter 3 (Through January 20th)
Chapter 3 (Through January 20th) Bio 1510
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Mechanisms in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 3: The Chemical Building Blocks of Life (Through January 20 )h Molecules o A group of atoms is a molecule A micromolecule is small Ex. Water Macromolecule = big Composed of many micromolecules Ex. Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids Carbohydrates and Proteins o The building blocks of carbohydrates is simple sugars Glucose = simple sugar Glucose provides us with energy Starch and glycogen is made up of glucose Function: energy storage Ex. Potatoes Cellulose is made up of glucose Function: plant cell walls Ex. Paper, strings of celery Chitin is made up of modified glucose Function: structural support Ex. Crab shells o Proteins are more the most diverse and its building blocks are amino acids Many of the proteins are enzymes and speed up reactions Can provide movement through membranes All proteins are made of the same building blocks which are amino acids There are 20 different amino acids Functions of Proteins Catalysis or transport o Ex. Hemoglobin Support o Ex. Hair, silk Nucleic Acids and Lipids o The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides DNA = deoxyribose nucleic acid “Blue print of life” It contains all the information that it takes to build an entire organism Function encodes genes o Gene is a piece of DNA that codes for proteins RNA = ribonucleic acid Function needed for gene expression o Gene expression when gene is transcribed and translated Transcription = DNA to make RNA Translation = RNA to make proteins o Lipids have DIFFERENT building blocks ALL lipids have hydrophobic regions in their structure They are nonpolar and are afraid of water Most common form of lipids is fats Fats are made up of glycerol and 3 fatty acids o Function energy storage Phospholipids form cell membranes (plasma membrane) and form outer layers of our cells Phospholipids are made up of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate, and polar R groups o Function cell membrane Steroids Four fused carbon rings Function membranes and hormones o Ex. Cholesterol, estrogen, and testosterone Functional Groups o Certain groups of atoms in macromolecules that determine their chemical functions o Hydroxyl (–OH) Found in ALL macromolecule groups o Carbonyl (a C with a double bond with O) Found in carbs and nucleic acids o Carboxyl (a combination of a hydroxyl and carbonyl group) Acts as an acid by donating its H+ to a solution Found in proteins and lipids o Amino (N bonded with 2 H) Acts as a base by removing H+ from a solution Found in proteins and nucleic acids o Sulfhydryl (S – H) Found in proteins specifically Cysteine is an amino acid Disulfide bridge a covalent bond that forms between the sulfur atoms of 2 cysteines (also called a SS bond) o Non polar covalent bonds because they are the same and have the same electronegativities S – H is a polar covalent bond because sulfur has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen o Phosphate (a P surrounded with O) Associated with energy Found in nucleic acids o Methyl (CH ) 3 Founded in proteins What are Carbohydrates made of? o A monomer is a building block of a polymer o Monosaccharide = simple sugar 2 monosaccharides = disaccharides Many monosaccharides form a polysaccharide o Starch is a polymer Only plants can create starch Animals CAN’T make starches but we can digest it What are Proteins made of? o Monomer amino acid Two amino acids is a dipeptide Many amino acids form a polypeptide o Peptide is a chain of amino acids held together by peptide bond Peptide bonds = polar covalent bonds that hold amino acids together No other macromolecule can do this o Some proteins are made of just one polypeptide chain (myoglobin), while others are made of two or more polypeptide chains (hemoglobin) Myoglobin and hemoglobin are proteins that transport oxygen and carbon Myoglobin has 1 polypeptide chain o In our muscles Hemoglobin has 4 polypeptide chains o In our red blood cells What are DNA and RNA made of? o Monomer nucleotide Two nucleotides is a dinucleotide Many nucleotides form a polynucleotide Ex. DNA and RNA What are lipids made of? o Monomer hydrocarbon chain o Polymer triglyceride o Triglyceride = “fat” Fatty acids are building blocks of triglycerides o NOT ALL LIPIDS HAVE FATTY ACID(S) IN THEIR STRUCTURE o ALL LIPIDS HAVE HYDROCARBON CHAIN A hydrocarbon chain is a stretch of hydrogen and carbon atoms The hydrocarbon chain is nonpolar and hydrophobic o Nonpolar covalent bonds that form between C to C or C to H o The carboxyl group acts as an acid which can make lipids have fatty acids How to make a polymer? o To make a polymer water must be removed to create a polymer o A covalent bond must be created o Dehydration synthesis is loss of water to make a big molecule and created a covalent bond between them Dehydration = loss of water Synthesis = to bond formation How to break apart a polymer? o Water must be added to break a polymer o Hydrolysis is the usage of water to break a polymer Hydro = water Lysis = to break apart Need water to break apart a covalent bond Monomers of Carbohydrates o There are 3C and 5C sugars o Monomers of carbohydrates = monosaccharides = simple sugars o Can form a ring or linear form o C H6O 12s6similar to glucose, fructose, and galactose They have the same components, BUT arranged differently in space Isomers = compounds that are composed of the same number of the same types of atoms, but these atoms are arranged differently in space How disaccharides form? o To form disaccharides water must be removed (dehydration synthesis) Make 2 molecules into one big molecule o Sucrose = table sugar Glucose + fructose o Glycosidic link = covalent bond between monosaccharides No other macromolecule can do this o Maltose = germinating grains Glucose + glucose o Lactose = “milk sugar” glucose + galactose Important Polysaccharides o Polysaccharides are made up of MANY glucose molecules Starches are used for energy storage in plants Animals can digest starch starting from the mouth to the small intestine Glycogen is energy storage for animals. It is found in skeletal muscles and liver for humans o Amylose + Amylopectin = Starch Amylose is unbranched Amylopectin is branched o Glycogen is HIGHLY branched o Branching is important because it allows us to break it down in many different places By breaking it down in many places it helps produce lots of glucose molecules in a short amount of time NOT ALL POLYSACCHARIDES STORE ENERGY Ex. Chitin and cellulose o When there is too much glucose it turns into glycogen and is stored in the liver for later use Some “Tough” Polysaccharides o Chitin provides structural support in animals (arthropods) and fungi Arthropods = shrimp/lobster Chitin is found in the exoskeleton (external shell) Found in cell walls of fungi Chitinase is the enzyme in the stomach that helps digest chitin o Cellulose is the structural component of plant cell walls CANNOT DIGEST CELLULOSE Undigested cellulose is fiber o Fiber allows feces to move along the intestines Found in plant cell walls Summary of Carbohydrates o Carbohydrates are divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides Monosaccharides contain 1 simple sugar Glucose, galactose, ribose, fructose, glyceraldehyde, and deoxyribose o Glyceraldehyde = 3C o Ribose and deoxyribose = 5C o Glucose, galactose, and fructose = 6C Disaccharides contain 2 monosaccharides Sucrose, lactose, and maltose o Sucrose = glucose + fructose o Lactose = glucose + galactose o Maltose = glucose + glucose Polysaccharides contain 2 or more monosaccharides Starches, chitin, cellulose, and glycogen o Starches and cellulose are found in plants o Chitin and glycogen are found in animals Monomers of DNA and RNA o DNA nucleotides are called deoxy or deoxyribonucleotide Building blocks of DNA Deoxy means without oxygen o RNA nucleotides are called ribonucleotides Building blocks of RNA o 1 nucleotide includes a phosphate group, 5C sugar, and nitrogenous base o Deoxynucleotide has 5C sugar called deoxyribose, that has H attached to the 2’C o Ribonucleotide has 5C called ribose that as OH (hydroxyl group) attached to 2’C Different Nitrogenous Bases o 5 different nitrogenous bases Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and U (Uracil) o Purines Purines = Adenine and Guanine (PURE AS GOLD) Adenine DOES NOT have a carbonyl group Guanine DOES have a carbonyl group Consists of 2 rings o Pyrimidines Pyrimidines = Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil Cytosine has a SINGLE CARBONYL group Thymine has 2 CARBONYL groups and a METHYL group Uracil has 2 CARBONYL groups but NO methyl group Consists of 2 rings o Both DNA and RNA have A, G, and C Only DNA has T Only RNA has U Four Different DNA nucleotides o Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP) 1 deoxyribose + adenine + phosphate o Deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) 1 deoxyribose + guanine + phosphate o Deoxycytodine monophosphate (dCMP) 1 deoxyribose + cytosine + phosphate o Deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) 1 deoxyribose + cytosine + phosphate Four Different RNA nucleotides o Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) Ribose + adenine + phosphate o Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) Ribose + guanine + phosphate o Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) Ribose + cytosine + phosphate o Uridine monophosphate (UMP) Ribose + uracil + phosphate HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE THE ABOVE (DNA vs. RNA) o (1) Determine whether nucleotide is deoxy or ribose nucleotide Deoxynucleotide has deoxyribose with H being attached to its 2’C Ribonucleotide has ribose with OH (hydroxyl group) being attached to its 2’C o (2) Determine whether nitrogenous base is purine pyrimidine Purines is doubled ringed A and G are purines o G has a carbonyl group o A does not Pyrimidine is single ringed (C, T, or U) C has a single carbonyl group T has 2 carbonyl groups attached to deoxyribose and 1 methyl group U has 2 carbonyl groups attached to ribose and it has NO methyl group The Structure of DNA o Sugarphosphate backbone consists of sugars and phosphate groups o Phophodiester bonds = covalent bond in which phosphate links two adjacent nucleotides extending from the 5’C of the sugar of one nucleotide to the 3’C of the sugar of the neighboring nucleotide o Only DNA and RNA have 5’ and 3’ ends