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Chapter 3 (Through January 20th)

by: Michelle Notetaker

Chapter 3 (Through January 20th) Bio 1510

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Biology > Bio 1510 > Chapter 3 Through January 20th
Michelle Notetaker
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes covered everything including her slides as well as her lecture notes. She had a lot of information in this lecture. Furthermore, there are notes in this lecture that she does not provid...
Basic Life Mechanisms
Dr. Nataliya Turchyn
Class Notes
Biology, BIO 1510, Turchyn, chapter 3, Wayne State
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Mechanisms in Biology at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 3: The Chemical Building Blocks of Life (Through January 20 )h  Molecules o A group of atoms is a molecule  A micromolecule is small  Ex. Water  Macromolecule = big  Composed of many micromolecules  Ex. Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids  Carbohydrates and Proteins o The building blocks of carbohydrates is simple sugars  Glucose = simple sugar  Glucose provides us with energy  Starch and glycogen is made up of glucose  Function: energy storage  Ex. Potatoes   Cellulose is made up of glucose   Function: plant cell walls  Ex. Paper, strings of celery  Chitin is made up of modified glucose  Function: structural support  Ex. Crab shells o Proteins are more the most diverse and its building blocks are amino acids  Many of the proteins are enzymes and speed up reactions  Can provide movement through membranes  All proteins are made of the same building blocks which are amino acids  There are 20 different amino acids  Functions of Proteins  Catalysis or transport o Ex. Hemoglobin  Support o Ex. Hair, silk  Nucleic Acids and Lipids o The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides  DNA = deoxyribose nucleic acid  “Blue print of life”  It contains all the information that it takes to build an entire  organism  Function  encodes genes o Gene is a piece of DNA that codes for proteins  RNA = ribonucleic acid  Function  needed for gene expression o Gene expression  when gene is transcribed and translated  Transcription = DNA to make RNA  Translation = RNA to make proteins o Lipids have DIFFERENT building blocks   ALL lipids have hydrophobic regions in their structure  They are non­polar and are afraid of water  Most common form of lipids is fats  Fats are made up of glycerol and 3 fatty acids o Function  energy storage  Phospholipids form cell membranes (plasma membrane) and form outer  layers of our cells  Phospholipids are made up of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate,  and polar R groups o Function  cell membrane  Steroids  Four fused carbon rings  Function  membranes and hormones o Ex. Cholesterol, estrogen, and testosterone  Functional Groups o Certain groups of atoms in macromolecules that determine their chemical  functions o Hydroxyl (–OH)   Found in ALL macromolecule groups o Carbonyl (a C with a double bond with O)   Found in carbs and nucleic acids o Carboxyl (a combination of a hydroxyl and carbonyl group)  Acts as an acid by donating its H+ to a solution  Found in proteins and lipids o Amino (N bonded with 2 H)  Acts as a base by removing H+ from a solution  Found in proteins and nucleic acids o Sulfhydryl (­S – H)  Found in proteins specifically   Cysteine is an amino acid   Disulfide bridge  a covalent bond that forms between the sulfur  atoms of 2 cysteines (also called a S­S bond)  o Non polar covalent bonds because they are the same and  have the same electronegativities  ­S – H is a polar covalent bond because sulfur has a higher  electronegativity than hydrogen o Phosphate (a P surrounded with O)  Associated with energy  Found in nucleic acids o Methyl (CH ) 3  Founded in proteins  What are Carbohydrates made of? o A monomer is a building block of a polymer o Monosaccharide = simple sugar  2 monosaccharides = disaccharides  Many monosaccharides form a polysaccharide  o Starch is a polymer  Only plants can create starch  Animals CAN’T make starches but we can digest it  What are Proteins made of? o Monomer  amino acid  Two amino acids is a dipeptide  Many amino acids form a polypeptide o Peptide is a chain of amino acids held together by peptide bond  Peptide bonds = polar covalent bonds that hold amino acids together  No other macromolecule can do this o Some proteins are made of just one polypeptide chain (myoglobin), while others  are made of two or more polypeptide chains (hemoglobin)  Myoglobin and hemoglobin are proteins that transport oxygen and carbon  Myoglobin has 1 polypeptide chain o In our muscles  Hemoglobin has 4 polypeptide chains o In our red blood cells  What are DNA and RNA made of? o Monomer  nucleotide  Two nucleotides is a dinucleotide   Many nucleotides form a polynucleotide   Ex. DNA and RNA  What are lipids made of? o Monomer  hydrocarbon chain o Polymer  triglyceride  o Triglyceride = “fat”  Fatty acids are building blocks of triglycerides o NOT ALL LIPIDS HAVE FATTY ACID(S) IN THEIR STRUCTURE o ALL LIPIDS HAVE HYDROCARBON CHAIN  A hydrocarbon chain is a stretch of hydrogen and carbon atoms  The hydrocarbon chain is non­polar and hydrophobic o Non­polar covalent bonds that form between C to C or C to H o The carboxyl group acts as an acid which can make lipids have fatty acids   How to make a polymer? o To make a polymer water must be removed to create a polymer o A covalent bond must be created  o Dehydration synthesis is loss of water to make a big molecule and created a  covalent bond between them  Dehydration = loss of water  Synthesis = to bond formation  How to break apart a polymer? o Water must be added to break a polymer o Hydrolysis is the usage of water to break a polymer  Hydro = water  Lysis = to break apart  Need water to break apart a covalent bond  Monomers of Carbohydrates o There are 3­C and 5­C sugars o Monomers of carbohydrates = monosaccharides = simple sugars o Can form a ring or linear form o C H6O 12s6similar to glucose, fructose, and galactose  They have the same components, BUT arranged differently in space  Isomers = compounds that are composed of the same number of the same  types of atoms, but these atoms are arranged differently in space  How disaccharides form? o To form disaccharides water must be removed (dehydration synthesis)  Make 2 molecules into one big molecule o Sucrose = table sugar  Glucose + fructose o Glycosidic link = covalent bond between monosaccharides  No other macromolecule can do this o Maltose = germinating grains  Glucose + glucose o Lactose = “milk sugar”  glucose + galactose   Important Polysaccharides o Polysaccharides are made up of MANY glucose molecules  Starches are used for energy storage in plants  Animals can digest starch starting from the mouth to the small  intestine  Glycogen is energy storage for animals.   It is found in skeletal muscles and liver for humans o Amylose + Amylopectin = Starch  Amylose is unbranched  Amylopectin is branched o Glycogen is HIGHLY branched o Branching is important because it allows us to break it down in many different  places  By breaking it down in many places it helps produce lots of glucose  molecules in a short amount of time      NOT ALL POLYSACCHARIDES STORE ENERGY  Ex. Chitin and cellulose o When there is too much glucose it turns into glycogen and is stored in the liver for later use Some “Tough” Polysaccharides o Chitin provides structural support in animals (arthropods) and fungi  Arthropods = shrimp/lobster  Chitin is found in the exoskeleton (external shell)  Found in cell walls of fungi  Chitinase is the enzyme in the stomach that helps digest chitin  o Cellulose is the structural component of plant cell walls  CANNOT DIGEST CELLULOSE Undigested cellulose is fiber o Fiber allows feces to move along the intestines  Found in plant cell walls Summary of Carbohydrates o Carbohydrates are divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and  polysaccharides  Monosaccharides contain 1 simple sugar Glucose, galactose, ribose, fructose, glyceraldehyde, and  deoxyribose o Glyceraldehyde = 3C o Ribose and deoxyribose = 5C o Glucose, galactose, and fructose = 6C  Disaccharides contain 2 monosaccharides Sucrose, lactose, and maltose o Sucrose = glucose + fructose o Lactose = glucose + galactose o Maltose = glucose + glucose  Polysaccharides contain 2 or more monosaccharides Starches, chitin, cellulose, and glycogen o Starches and cellulose are found in plants o Chitin and glycogen are found in animals Monomers of DNA and RNA o DNA nucleotides are called deoxy­ or deoxyribonucleotide  Building blocks of DNA  Deoxy­ means without oxygen o RNA nucleotides are called ribonucleotides  Building blocks of RNA o 1 nucleotide includes a phosphate group, 5­C sugar, and nitrogenous base o Deoxynucleotide has 5C sugar called deoxyribose, that has H attached to the 2’C o Ribonucleotide has 5C called ribose that as OH (hydroxyl group) attached to 2’C Different Nitrogenous Bases o 5 different nitrogenous bases  Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and U (Uracil) o Purines  Purines = Adenine and Guanine (PURE AS GOLD) Adenine DOES NOT have a carbonyl group Guanine DOES have a carbonyl group  Consists of 2 rings o Pyrimidines   Pyrimidines = Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil Cytosine has a SINGLE CARBONYL group Thymine has 2 CARBONYL groups and a METHYL group Uracil has 2 CARBONYL groups but NO methyl group  Consists of 2 rings o Both DNA and RNA have A, G, and C  Only DNA has T  Only RNA has U Four Different DNA nucleotides o Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP)  1 deoxyribose + adenine + phosphate o Deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP)  1 deoxyribose + guanine + phosphate o Deoxycytodine monophosphate (dCMP)  1 deoxyribose + cytosine + phosphate o Deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP)  1 deoxyribose + cytosine + phosphate  Four Different RNA nucleotides o Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)  Ribose + adenine + phosphate o Guanosine monophosphate (GMP)  Ribose + guanine + phosphate o Cytidine monophosphate (CMP)  Ribose + cytosine + phosphate  o Uridine monophosphate (UMP)  Ribose + uracil + phosphate     HOW TO DIFFERENTIATE THE ABOVE (DNA vs. RNA) o (1) Determine whether nucleotide is deoxy­ or ribose nucleotide  Deoxynucleotide has deoxyribose with H being attached to its 2’C  Ribonucleotide has ribose with OH (hydroxyl group) being attached to its  2’C o (2) Determine whether nitrogenous base is purine pyrimidine  Purines is doubled ringed  A and G are purines o G has a carbonyl group  o A does not  Pyrimidine is single ringed (C, T, or U) C has a single carbonyl group T has 2 carbonyl groups attached to deoxyribose and 1 methyl  group U has 2 carbonyl groups attached to ribose and it has NO methyl  group The Structure of DNA o Sugar­phosphate backbone consists of sugars and phosphate groups o Phophodiester bonds = covalent bond in which phosphate links two adjacent  nucleotides extending from the 5’C of the sugar of one nucleotide to the 3’C of  the sugar of the neighboring nucleotide o Only DNA and RNA have 5’ and 3’ ends


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