Note 5 for OPTI 510L at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
OPTI 420521 Introductory Optomechanical Engineering 5 Prisms a Tunnel diagrams and reduced thickness b Motion of prisms beam steering image rotation 0 Common prisms and uses 900 Beam deviation Right angle prism Porro Right angle prism with roof Penta prism and roof penta prism lm age rotators Dove array K mirrors Abbe folded Schmidt Delta prism Pechan 180O beam deviation plane mirror Porro Cube corner Other Rhomboid Porro erecting prisms Abbe erecting prisms Anamorphic prisms References MilHDBK141 W Smith Modem Optical Engineering McGraWHill 2000 W Wolfe Nondispersing prisms Ch4 in Hanc mok of Optics Vol11 2nd ed McGraW Hill 1996 Yoder P R Design andMounting ofPiisms andMirrors in Optical Instruments SPlE vol TT32 1998 D Swift Image rotation devices 7 a comparative survey Optics and Laser Technology Vol 4 pp 175188 1972 Prof Shack s prism program Tunnel diagams and reduced distance The optical performance of a pnsm can be represented by a combination of the methods used for plane minors and optj cal windows Unfolding All ofthe re ections can beunfolded Figure 416 Smith Re ections in glass Use total internal re ection if n sin 0 gt 1 for all angles ofincidence This is lossless However the surface must be protected A little smudge ruins it For n 152 critical angle is 41 Otherwise must use re ective coatings Optical SclmcesAZElSll 5 pnsms l H Eurge Unveisty of Arizona Size of elliptical beamprint De ned by intersection of light cone with tilted plane Center of ellipse Elliptical 39beam print39 Axis intercept Face View of mirror Mirror reflecting surface Diameter of beam reference plane Optical axis Reference plane l to axis Extreme outside ray typical FIGURE 88 Geometric relationships used to de ne the beam print of a rotationally symmetric inclined mirror Adapted from Schubert F Mach Des 51 128 1979 WD2Ltan0t AEF Wcosa E w2 51116 on G A12 F AW FZM B 2 4 212 2sin8oc A G Yoder Paul R Jr OptoMechanical Systems Design 3 Ed CRC Press 2006 Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms 3 J H Burge University of Arizona Reduced distance Remember that plane parallel plate causes an image shift M m nllt t The effect of the image shift from the glass can be accommodated by replacing the glass with the airspace equivalent If the path length in glass with refractive index n is L then the reduced distance is Ln Real glass thickness L f gt Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms J H Burge University of Arizona Tunnel diagrams To represent the firstorder properties ofthe prism rst unfold all re ections then squash the length to the reduced distance Penla prism gives 90 deviation opticai SnencesAZUszi s Fnsms J H Eurge University nr Anzuna Image orientations Erect Reverted O Inverted 180 Rotated Prism deviation Direct vision gt displacement gt or gt 45 deviation gt 90 deviation gt 180 deviation gt 4 Optical Sciences 420521 5 Prisms 6 J H Burge University of Arizona Prism Rotation Id 7 0 sgnJ I4 th 414er 113 J 5174 Lot ie39 ace VANA7 lv Jew Kory x vx39 C mm 4 I39H Even qrefleu n EV h l y 39 K 7quot 0J5 939 a re 7chan 0amp0 39gt 7 Lnquot JJ Evea 0J1 4 4 1 0mm Sciences 420521 5 Pnsms J H Burge University ofAnzona 9o0 deviation prisms Rigm angle prism MilHdbklztl Amid prism sometimes called a roofpn39sm The V indicates roof mm 1 2 Inhm A mm 22 Axum yum W slmwmg a Amgln my padi umuuh uw pmm und mmcmmg m use ormnmlwn rm mm lmncamd man m nduuv n gh withnul m n ce aruae d uenum x4 Smith OpncalScxmcesAZElSZI 5 ans y H Eurge Umvemty uf Anzma Porro prism Object mm This gives 180 devia on inversion Devia on is insensi ve to prism pitch Tunnel diagram mm lumpy cpnm mm diagram 19mm Purim prism opucal SciencesAZUSZI s Pnsms J H Burge Univa39sltyqunzuna Applications of Porn prisms leEmED IMAGE FROM OBJECTIVE ERECY IMAGE h PRESENTED T0 EVELENS Figure 424 Porro prism system rst type s indicahng the way the Porro system erects an invened image b Pom prisms are usually fabricated wiLh rounded ends to save space and weight Note that ihe spacing between ihe prisms has been shown increased for clarity leL IED quura 425 Pom DI39ISm system K second Lype a lndlcatmg the el39ectlon ufan invened lmzlge This syslem is shown made flom lwe prisms in La and mm chree prisms in bl sham OpncalSclznceSAZElSZI 5 Pnsms in l H Bulge UnwemiyafAnzam Penta prism Deviates light by 90 independent ofprism pitch angle This is one ofthe magic pn39sms Roofpentaprism SILVERED J43 K SIDRED l 9039 v 2 b mcw What about roll and yaw OpncalScxzncesAZElSZI 5 ans n y H Eurge Umvemty uf Anzma Direct Vision prisms Rhomboid Figure 430 is Rhomboid prism b Au equivalent mirror system Both systems displace the opti cal axis without deviation or reorientation of the image la lab This is a magic prism It deviates the light but does not change the angle even iftl le prism is rotated about all axes Can be used in a system to create binocular output Re ans er XULInm i E Microscope Observalion Tube Prisms arm Beamspiittet s ro yeuleee ro zyeuleee Parallel cylluuiloel parallel 39 39 quote As mllnarloel L m anomuom P pe Prism 39Il v i l D L on J ngm anI ouleerlve r MlLHdhkiAl OpncalSclzncesAZUSZI 5 Prisms l2 l H Eurge Lluwersty uf Arizona Image rotators For 9 rotation about optical axis Image rotates 29 Dove prism is most common Sum 0pm Sciences 420521 5 him 1 H Burge Umversty Arizona 13 Dove prisms can be used in pairs and arrays Dauulv Swift Opucal Scxmces4ZO521 5 Pnsms 14 J H Burge Unlversxty of Anzona Pechan prism Compact image rotator Expensive MxerdkaMI wa 0pm ScxencesAZEISZI H Eurge Umvemtyqunzma 5 ans mm NW 15 Pechanischmidt or RoofPrism for image inversion nwmne unseen ms v Eyepiece c mung OpncalScxzncesAZElSZI 5 ans y H Eurge Umvemty uf Anzma m Abbe Rota on prism 7 ll Fig12 Abbe vae roman This can be made from 3 plane minors 7 same geometry Kemirr or s Also it can be folded m 15 annu Abba Iyun mum 5mm OphcalScumesAZUSZI 5 Pnsms H Burg UnwexsnyafAnzam 17 Prisms from Shack i R I 1 MGLt km m mmm REFfo 9 wcua sreu f k T 70 DGWATIGN 1 J ngggg FGIZRO 41 scum ECHHDT 1 r Isa Baum usquot vanm W quotas Ernarm Ken2 am on PELua i1 7m 5157 Optical Sciences 420521 5 Pnsms Q vovr V Wusgtcv b a39 ssf 1an are mww Am 5451 JHBurge Umvemcy of Anzona 22
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