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PowerPoint 2: Development of the CNS: Molecular Systems

by: Brittany Woody

PowerPoint 2: Development of the CNS: Molecular Systems PSB4504

Marketplace > University of Florida > PSB4504 > PowerPoint 2 Development of the CNS Molecular Systems
Brittany Woody

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About this Document

These notes include information from the PowerPoint and lecture. Summaries of the readings will be posted closer to exam time.
Developmental Psychobiology
Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSB4504 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
1/13/16 PowerPoint 2 Development of the CNS - Gastrulation occurs during the third week of gestation in humans - Gastrulation occurs in mammals when the three germ layers differentiate - Migration of mesoderm under ectoderm induces ectoderm to become neural tissue; defines anterior/ posterior directions (head and tail end) - Three germ layers: • ectoderm: neural plate and epidermis; neural plate becomes notochord which eventually becomes the spinal chord; the neural tube closes from the middle of the chord and rostrally to the brain and caudally to the end of the spine • endoderm: digestive organs and lungs • mesoderm: muscles and bones - “Organizer”: blastoporal lip; tissue that induces differentiation of another tissue - Spemann took blastoporal lip out of donor and into host so that the host had two; the resulting organism had two heads and nervous systems: concluded that blastoporal lip is the organizer of the nervous system; dorsal lip cells could organize the host cells to form a new body axis - Spina bifida: failure of neural tube to close caudally; nervous tissue is exposed; treatable, may result in motor deficits - Anencephaly: failure of neural tube to close rostrally; little brain tissue above midbrain, forebrain is mostly absent; brain tissue is exposed; almost always fatal as fetuses or shortly after birth - Hydrocephaly: accumulation of CSF in the brain due to constriction of cerebral aqueduct; aqueduct is narrowing between third and fourth ventricle that allows CSF to flow outside of the ventricles and around the brain and spinal cord; results in increased pressure in the brain and often enlargement of the skull; varying outcomes; gray matter is mostly what is effected; subcortical structures are relatively normal; virtually no neck; shunt can relieve pressure but is risky; can affect only one side of the brain if the blockage is between the lateral and third ventricles 1 1/13/16 - Folic acid (folate) is essential for normal neural tube development; paternal and maternal folate is involved; folate supplement have reduced neural tube defects from .2% to .06% - Neurons are created once neural tube closes - The basal plate gives rise to ventral motor neurons; the alar plate gives rise to dorsal sensory neurons; separated by Sulcus limitans - Lateral horns give rise to sympathetic neurons - The roof plate and floor plate give animals bilateral symmetry and are important for neurons that cross the midline - Roof plate has corpus callosum fibers - Mitosis of neurons takes place in the ventricular zone - Horizontal cleavage signals the end of division for a particular cell; signaling proteins split so each cell has only one signaling protein - Signalling proteins: numb and notch-1 - Rules for the birth of cells in the CNS: • Proliferation begins in cervical segments and proceeds rostrally and caudally from there; follows behind closing of the neural tube • Large neurons are born first. First- born neurons differentiate into Golgi Type I neurons; set scaffolding of nervous system - Golgi type I: large excitatory projection neurons; Golgi type II: small inhibitory interneurons • Motoneurons are born before sensory neurons; sensory neurons follow motoneurons • Interneurons are the last neurons born because of their smaller cell bodies (largely Golgi Type II) • Glia proliferate after neurons, with the exception of radial glia; first glia cells are born while neurons are finishing genesis; radial glia cells serve as guides for migration of neurons - Ventricular layer= ependymal layer= proliferative zone= neuroepithelium= birthplace of CNS cells 2 1/13/16 - Mantle layer= newly born, post-proliferative cells - Alar plate: second-order sensory neurons, interneurons; cells are organized in layers - Basal plate: motoneurons, pre-motor interneurons; cells are nuclear - Sulcus limitans: lateral proliferation- free zones; delimiting alar and basal plates - Roof plate: dorsal midline; proliferation- free zone - Floor plate: ventral midline; proliferation- free zone - Neocortex and hypocampus neurons are organized as sheets: derived from alar plate - Cerebellum is derived from alar plate; Rhombic lip gives rise to cerebellum cortex - 4th ventricle is open until 6th week of gustation - 3-4 weeks of gustation: 3 primary vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain) - 5-6 weeks of gustation: 5 secondary vesicles (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon) - 6 weeks: brainstem becomes more aligned with spinal cord as pontine flexure bends • cerebellum develops on pontine flexure; closes off 4th ventricle • cephalic flexure is maintained: results in brain being at a 90 degree angle from brainstem; neotenous feature - neoteny: maintaining juvenile features in adult animals - Regressive events in the development of the nervous system: • Synapse withdrawal: neurons make more synapses than needed in development, unneeded synapses are withdrawn • Axon retraction: neurons make projections to distant parts of nervous system in development, then axons are retracted • Programmed cell death (apoptosis): death of neurons or population of neurons 3


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