Geology 101 GEO 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carter Cox on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Geology 101 First Week Notes (Highlighted Words Are Important) What is Science? - A method for learning about the natural world - Anyone can follow The Scientific method is not linear Exploration and Discovery - Making observations - Asking questions - Finding inspiration - Exploring the Literature Know a lot about your field before asking questions Identifying a Problem - Example- Apples are falling from trees and that is a problem. Why? o Gravitation is what is causing the apples to fall - Look at the world around you, and ask why Testing Ideas - Hypothesis- A “proposed explanation” for specific problem o Has explanatory power o Can be tested by further investigation - Prediction- What we would logically expect to observe if a particular idea were true or false o A prediction can be about the past, present and future Ex. Future- making a prediction then having to wait for the end result Conceivable pathway Prediction Vs. Hypothesis - Prediction: Black car will be hotter than a white car in the sun. - Hypothesis: Dark colored objects absorb more solar heat than light colored objects o Explanatory Power is key Data- - Information gleaned from observations- usually observations that are made in a standardized way - Systematically collected o Example: Exact Height - Not anecdotal information- no telling, have to actually take measurements and experiment yourself - Is direct observation needed? No!! Evidence- - Test results and/ or observations that may either help, support, or help refute a scientific idea o Gathering for a reason o Have to ask yourself what you are looking for and why o Data is a set of numbers and if not questioned it isn’t evidence Community Analysis and Feedback – arguably the most important - Feed back and peer review - Republication - Discussion Publishing- this is how scientists communicate - Journals o 1,350,000 peer reviewed scientific articles in 2006 - Conference - Books - An open, continuous debate Scientific Theory: A widely accepted explanation for why things work the way they do - Greater breadth than hypothesis o Often includes hypothesis - Not a guess, hunch, or some random thought - Theories are extremely well tested You have to have the highest certainty Example: Newton’s Laws Proving Vs. Disproving - Not trying to prove - Look for new information - Anytime any day something (evidence) will be found - Closest to the truth as you can get Benefits and Outcome - Develop Technology - Build knowledge Continual Testing - Theories are never proven Assumptions - Science has rely on assumptions - Not trivial o Example: Dropping an object. We assume it will always fall Uniformitarianism: Physical processes have always functions in basically the same manner - Gravity - Speed of light Can be complicated - Climate (glaciers etc.) - Plate tectonics (Changing rate) Common Misconceptions - Scientists are always changing their mind! o Often due to news articles Misunderstood scientific method Misunderstood research results - Conformation Bias o If we see something we like we do it o If we see something we don’t like we don’t do it - Anecdotal evidence - Common Sense- mathematical sense - Causation vs. correlation Who are Scientists? - Anyone using the scientific method Where do scientists work? - Big universities or government o Doing all types of research o Must publish - Industry Where does the money come to fund? - Industry o Consumers - University and Government o Government NSF, NIH, NOAA, NASA, Defense o Non- profit National geographic o Industry Oil, computer
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