PSY 110 Dr. Rod Gillis
PSY 110 Dr. Rod Gillis PSY 110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Diaz on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Gillis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 200 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Psychology Exam #1 I. Origins and methods of Psychology Definition scientific study of mind and behavior Can be among humans Follows the scientific method Mind: healthy brain Behavior: product of mind Six approaches 1. Psychoanalytic (Freud) unconscious mind 2. Behavioral (Watson, Skinner) all observed through behavior 3. Gestalt (Kohler, Wertheimer) the whole is bigger than parts 4. Humanistic (Maslor, Royers) all humans are motivated to reach full potential 5. Cognitive ( thinker, memory, language, learning, problem solving, creativity) 6. Biological, medical, physiological Fields of specialization Human services clinical, community, school, clinical Applied sports, forensics, engineering, industrial, educational, health History of Psychology 1. Charles Darwin 1859 survival of the fittest and natural selection a. individual difference in personality and intelligence beginning of PSY this was introduced by Galton 2. Sir Frances Galton 1884 wrote the book Heridatary Genius a. Set up an Anthropometric laboratory measurement of people (heigh, weight, breathing capacity, memory, grip strength there should be individual differences between people and they run in families i. They found out Stronger people tend to have stronger children, same with intelligent people b. Carl Pearson develop correlation 3. Wilhelm Wundt 1879 (Titchener 1893 first American PSY trained by Wundt) a. Sets up the first scientific laboratory of PSY b. Observed human interaction and responses c. School of Structuralism 4. William James 1890 (American) Principles of Psychology a. One of the most important book in PSY b. He was interested in the function of the structure School of functionalism 5. Sigmund Freud 1900 6. Ivan Pavlov 1920’s (Physiology) 7. John Watson 1920’s 1913 paper in Behaviorism a. Induced a phobia in a baby this led to the ethical guideline II. Ethical Issues Institutional Review Boards (IRB) human participant in a research have to pass by this board Informed Consent human in research need to fill out this pass Minimize risk Right to privacy Debriefing right to learn more about an experiment Record keeping Animal research have another guideline III. Overview of the Scientific Method Not a specific scientific method Observation Theory (tentative explanation of the observe fact) Theory is human nature everyone wants to explain what they saw Theory is never proven it grows, evolve and improve every answer raises more questions Testable hypothesis must be falsifiable, discomfirmable it has to be right or wrong it cannot be right for many reasons Test it True experiment Correlation method +1 is the highest correlation one can get Correlation does not imply causation it is necessary but not sufficient for correlation a. Directionality problem causality may go in either direction b. Variable problem any unknown variable may cause both correlated variable to move together; a measure (a third variable) not considered can cause a different in the experiment (age variable) i. Example of negative correlation the more water a baby gets, the least probability of getting diseases IV. Statistics Descriptive statistics putting number into tables Mean is the most used (Xbar) Deviation X-Xbar Standard deviation (S) formula Z score if it is +1 your are 1 deviation from standard score, -2 you are 2 deviation below standard score -.90 correlation is a bigger one than +.90 a. magnitude look at the number b. direction look at the sign Inferential Statistics uses descriptive statistcs to make judgement
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