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Chapter 3

by: Janiese Northern

Chapter 3 PSY 221

Janiese Northern
GPA 2.7

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Chapter 3 biological foundations, prenatal development and birth
Psychology of child development
Mary McGuire
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiese Northern on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 221 at Western Illinois University taught by Mary McGuire in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology of child development in Psychlogy at Western Illinois University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
    Prenatal Environment Influences    The term ​teratogens ​refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal  period.    Dose­ the larger doses over longer time periods usually have more negative effects.   Heredity­ the genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important  role. Some individuals are better able than others to withstand harmful environments.     Age­ the effects of teratogens vary with age of the organism at time of exposure.     In the period of the zygote, before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact.    The ​embryonic​  period Is the time when serious defects are most likely to occur because the  foundations for all body parts are being laid down.     The ​fetal​eriod, teratogenic damage is usually minor.     Prescription and nonprescription drugs  Prescription drugs such as ​thalidomide​, produced gross deformities of the embryos developing  arms and legs, less frequently, damage to the ears, heart, kidneys, and genitals,  Diethylstilbrestrol DES, showed unusually high rates of cancer of the vagina, malformations of  the uterus and infertility,  Accutane​  results in eye, ear, skull, brain, heart, and immune system abnormalities.   Antidepressants are linked to increased risk of premature delivery and birth complications.     Illegal drugs Babies born to users of cocaine, heroin, or methadone are at risk for a wide variety  of problems, including prematurity, low birth weight, physical defects, breathing difficulties, and  death at or around the time of birth.   Infants are born drug addicted. They are often feverish and irritable and have trouble sleeping,  and their cries are abnormal shrill and piercing.   Heroin­ and methadone­ exposed infants are less attentive to the environment than nonexposed  babies, and their motor development is slow.  Evidence on cocaine suggests that some prenatal exposed babies develop lasting problems.  Several studies report preceptual, motor, attention, memory, language, and impulse control  problems that persist into the preschool and school years. Nonexposed babies, cocaine exposed  babies show gesture stress reactivity, as indicated by a more rapid rise in saliva concentration of  cortisol to emotionally arousing events.   Researchers have linked prenatal Marijuana exposure to smaller head size; to attention, memory,  and academic achievement difficulties;  to impulsivity and over activity and to depression as well  as anger and aggression in childhood and adolescence.   Overall the effects of illegal drugs are far less consistent than the impact of tobacco and alcohol.               


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