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CHE 101 Notes

by: Elisabeth Newman

CHE 101 Notes CHE 101

Elisabeth Newman
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CHE 101 Notes
Intro to Chem
Dr. Sarmad S. Hindo
Class Notes
Chemistry 101, notes, Chemistry




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisabeth Newman on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 101 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Dr. Sarmad S. Hindo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Intro to Chem in Chemistry at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chemistry Week 1 Notes Chemistry: Study of matter as it changes Science: The act of seeking and understanding the underlying principles in nature. It is composed of two facets: technological which is factual and philosophical which is theoretical. Technology: Directly applying knowledge for problem solving. Green Chemistry: Processes and materials used that help prevent or reduce pollution at the source. Sustainable Chemistry: Meets the needs of present generation without compromising needs of future generations. 5 Characteristics of Science - Testable - Reproducible - Explanatory - Predictable - Tentative Scientific Hypothesis: Testing explanations based off observed data. Testing is done through creating and performing an experiment. Scientific Laws: Summarize data and describe natural phenomena. An example of this is the Law of Gravity or it can be explained mathematically such as Boyles Law (PV=K). Scientific Theory: Tested hypotheses that explains natural phenomena, but they are tentative and can change. Scientific Models: Tangible representations of invisible processes. Molecules: A group of atoms that are held together through chemical bonds. They can also be broken down through chemical reactions. Science and Technology are interrelated (risks and benefits) Risk – Benefit analysis has an estimation known as the Desirability Quotient (DQ) DQ=Benefits/Risks Applied Research: Study of a specific problem in the industry or the environment. An example of this is George Washington Carver through his research he created more than 300 products from peanuts. Basic Research: Search for knowledge for its own sake. The findings could be applicable to a problem in environment/industry. CO = Carbon Monoxide = 1 Carbon and 1 Oxygen Coefficient: Tells you how many of the molecule you have in the case of the previous image the 2 says there are 2 water molecules. Subscript: Tells you how many of the element you have in the case of the previous image the 2 says there are 2 Hydrogen elements and there is 1 Oxygen. Density: How compact a material is. MATT can be a solid liquid or a gas Solid Matter -The molecules/atoms are packed close together in a fixed location. ER -The molecules/atoms vibrate but they do not move around/past each other. -Solids have a fixed volume and shape Crystalline: Atoms/molecules are in patterns that are long – range and have a repeating order, an example of this is diamond. Amorphous: Atoms/molecules that have no long – range order. Liquid Matter - The molecules/ atoms in liquids are packed closely like solid matter BUT they can move relative to each other freely. - Due to free flowing ability, it can take the shape of the container. - Fixed volume not shape Gaseous Matter -Molecules/atoms have a lot of space between them. -Free to move relative to each other. -These qualities make gas compressible. Separating Mixtures: Is done through distillation, and filtration, evaporation and more. Physical & Chemical Changes -Combustion, Deposition, Rust, Sublimation, Freeze, Melt, Condense, Evaporate If it is a physical change think of an ice cube you can melt it and to make it ice again you freeze it. If it is a chemical change think of propane gas burning the chemical composition is altered and cannot be undone. Physical Property: Something a substance shows without change in its composition. Chemical Property: Something a substance shows ONLY through changing its composition through chemical change such as a chemical reaction. Chemical Symbol Homoatomic Molecule: Molecule containing atoms that are the same kind. A substance containing homoatomic molecule has to be an ELEMENT. Some examples are Chlorine, Phosphorus, and Sulfur Heteroatomic Molecule: Molecule containing atoms that are different from each other. A substance containing heteratomic molecule has to be a COMPOUND. Some examples are Diatomic (HCl), Triatomic (water), Tetratomic (C2H2), Tetratomic (NH3) Standard Units of Measurement Quantity Unit Symbol Length Meter M Mass Kilogram Kg Time Second S Temperature Kelvin K Amount of Substance Mole mol Electric Current Ampere A Luminous Intensity Candela Cd Measurement of Matter Experimental Decimal equivalent Prefix Symbol Expression 10^12 1,000,000,000,000 Tera T 10^9 1,000,000,000 Giga G 10^6 1,000,000 Mega M 10^3 1,000 Kilo K 10^2 100 Hecto H 10^1 10 Deka da 10^-1 0.1 Deci d 10^-2 0.01 Centi C 10^-3 0.001 Milli M 10^-6 0.000001 Micro µ 10^-9 0.000000001 Nano N 10^-12 0.000000000001 Pico P 10^-15 0.000000000000001 Temto F -Mass: SI base unit is kg -Length: SI base unit is m -Volume: SI base unit is m^3 -Time: SI base unit is s Significant Figures aka Sig Figs  The greater a number means a greater certainty of the measurement  Sig Fig Rules o ALL nonzero digits are significant o Interior zeros (zeros between 2 nonzero digits) are significant o Leading zeros ( of 1 nonzero digit) NOT SIGNIFICANT. They help locate the decimal point o Trailing zeros (end of #)…  After decimal point are ALWAYS significant  Before decimal point (and after a nonzero #) are ALWAYS significant  Before an implied decimal point are ambiguous and should be avoided by using Scientific Notation  Decimal points placed after 1 or more of these trailing zeros if the zeros are to be considered significant Sig Fig: Rules for Calculations  Multiplication & Division o Carries the same # of Sig. Figs. as the factor that has the fewest Sig. Figs. Ex. 4.5855*5.32=24.39486 but it would be 24.4 because the fewest Sig. Figs. is 3 and it goes from .3 to .4 because you round up  Addition & Subtraction o Carries the same # of decimal places as the quantity that has the fewest decimal places Ex. 4.232+4.32=8.552 but it would be 8.55 because 4.232 has 3 and 4.32 has 2. Exact #’s -Have unlimited significant figures -Defined quantities -Some conversion factors are a defined quantity Rules for Rounding - if last digit dropped is 4 or less - if last digit dropped is 5 or more -EX. 5.58 to 5.6 3.334 to 3.3 Rounding Multistep Calculations -Avoid rounding errors by rounding the final answer by keeping up with the sig. figs. in each step. Precision and Accuracy -Precision: How close the series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are -Accuracy: How close the estimated value is to the actual value 5 Exponential Notation: A x 10^n EX. 1.05∗10 Solving Chemical Problems -Unit conversion and using units to guide you as you are solving is known as dimensional analysis. -Units always need to be included in the calculation and are *,/, and canceled like other algebraic quantities Dimensional Analysis -Unit Equation: Statement of 2 equivalent quantities. EX. 2.54cm=1in. -Conversion Factor: The # you convert from is on bottom and the # you convert to is on top Equalities & Conversion Factors for Length 1.00 in. = 2.54 cm 1.00 m = 39.4 in. 1.00 km = 0.621 mi. Equalities & Conversion Factors for Mass 1.00 lb. = 454 g 1.00 kg = 2.20 lbs. 1.00 ounce = 28.3 g Equalities & Conversion Factors for Volume 1.00 quart = 0.946 liter 1.00 liter = 0.265 gal. 1.00 mm = 0.0338 fluid ounce Energy: Heat & Temperature -Heat: Energy is transferred from hotter to cooler objects -Temp.: The average kinetic energy of the atoms/molecules that make up the object -Energy: Being able to do work and transfer heat - Potential Energy = Stored energy - Kinetic Energy = Energy in motion Units of Heat -Measured in calories or joules * 1 cal. = amount of heat required to change temp. of 1.00 g of water 1.00 ºC * 1 cal. = 4.184 joules (J) *Food cal.(Cal.) is a kilocalorie * 1 Cal = 1kcal = 1000 cal = 4.184 J Kelvin: Unit of Temperature Water boils 212ºF = 100ºC = 373K Water freezes 32ºF = 0.00ºC = 273K Absolute Zero= -459ºF = -273ºC = 0K Critical Thinking and Validity -Can test the validity of a claim by using FLaReS * Falsifiability * Logic *Replicability * Sufficiency -If the claim clears all four then it could be true. However, it can still be proven false. If it fails one, it could be false.


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