BZ 101 Notes for the first week
BZ 101 Notes for the first week BZ 101
Popular in Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2)
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
Reviews for BZ 101 Notes for the first week
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 01/22/16
BZ 101 Notes Chapter 1 notes to come next week after I get my textbook Chapter 2- Organic Molecules - 2.4- Organic Molecules - Lipid= fat - Organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen atoms • Carbon atoms often share electrons with other carbon atoms forming long hydrocarbon chains • Attached to the carbon chains are functional groups • functional group- a group of atoms that is attached to a molecule that reacts/ behaves in a predictable way and contains certain characteristics - Macromolecules contain many molecules joined together • Monomers- simple organic molecules that exist individually - ex. monosaccharide, fatty acids, amino acid, nucleotide • Polymers- large organic molecules formed by combining monomers - ex. carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid - Cells have common mechanism for joining monomers and degrading polymers • Dehydration Reaction- an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule • Hydrolysis(water splitting) Reaction- the components of water are added, the chemical bond that is holding the monomers together is split by adding water. This includes chemical breakdowns in the small intestine. - 2.5- Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates- Function for quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Play a structural role in plants, bacteria, and arthropods - On cell surfaces are involved in cell to cell recognition (white blood cells use this to recognize whether or not a cell is supposed to be in the body) - Simple Carbohydrates also known as monosaccharides • ex.glucose, galactose, and fructose - Disaccharides (simple sugars) contain two monosaccharides. • ex. maltose, sucrose, lactose - Polysaccharides- long polymers that contain many glucose subunits • Starch- the storage form of glucose in plants • Glycogen- the storage form of glucose in animals (we store glycogen in our muscles and liver) • Cellulose- found in the cell walls of plants - 2.6- Lipids - Lipids- contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules and we have the ability to store lipids long term • Function as energy storage molecules • Insulate against heat loss • form protective cushions around major organs Form membranes • • Chemical messengers - Lipids are diverse in structure and function • One common characteristic is that they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic) - Types of lipids include fats and oils, phospholipids, and steroids - A fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain that ends with the acidic group • ex. COOH - Saturated fatty acids- have no double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms - Unsaturated fatty acids- have 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms (not all the carbon atoms are completely surrounded by hydrogen atoms) - Trans fat means that the molecule is switched making it less healthy - Emulsiﬁcation- fat droplets disperse in water that were clumped together. Bile(we produce this) emulsiﬁes fats in our small intestine. • ex. soap and egg whites - Phospholipids- Comprised of 2 fatty acids + a phosphate group + glycerol • they are major components of cells membranes • They spontaneously form a bilayer in which the hydrophilic heads face outward toward watery solutions and the fails form the hydrophobic interior. The polar head faces the outside meaning that it is hydrophilic water soluble and the tails are non polar or hydrophobic that means that they are not water soluble. - Steroids- all have a backbone of four fused carbon rings • ex. cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen - 2.7- Proteins - Proteins- are polymers composed of amino acid monomers. Generally are very long and contain lots and lots of monomers - Proteins perform many functions: • Structural- Keratin and collagen • Enzymes Hormones- Insulin • • Transport molecules- Hemoglobin (found in red blood cells and transport oxygen) • Antibodies - Amino acid- contains an amino group (-HN2) an acidic group (-COOH) and and R group also known as the rest of the molecule (varies) - Peptides- can be used interchangeably with protein and a peptide bond joins two amino acids - Polypeptide- a single chain of amino acids - Levels of protein organization: • The structure of the protein has at lease 3 levels of organization (some have 4) •