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Life 103, week 1

by: Alexis Darling

Life 103, week 1 LIFE 103

Alexis Darling
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

Notes on ch 26
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Darling on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Week 1: Chapter 26 Starter story: Initial taxonomists put all species into the simple categories of plant or animal.  Then they decided Plantae and Animalia were only 2 of 5 kingdoms, the others being Monera,  Portista, and Fungi. Now all 5 of these kingdoms can be classified as either bacteria, archaea, or  eukarya.  A major player was Carl Linnaeus, who, in order to organize the diversity of life,  categorized organisms into ‘bins’ based on structural similarities. He made a hierarchical  structure using big bins to include many smaller bins which in turn included even smaller bins.  Linnaeus started binomial classification, which is the use of two names, the genus and species, to refer to an organism. In total, his system used the classifications of kingdom, phylum, class,  order, family, genus, and species, going from most general to most specific. *to remember: King Peter Came Over For Ginger Snaps Still, scientists work to sort out the diversity of life, which grows ever more complicated  as they realize that a lot of horizontal gene transfer took place through history, leading to the  current “web of life”. Vocab:  Taxonomy­ the developing study to classify organisms; uses KPCOFGS o Purpose: show evolutionary relatedness (entities within a certain bin share a common  ancestor)  Phylogeny­ the actual history of species tracing back through evolution  Phylogenetic tree­ diagram which displays the branching evolution of organisms o Can be used to see how closely related two species are; depends on nearest branch  point= where they had their most recent common ancestor, but from there the lines  split (NOT based on being side by side)  Systematics­ groups organisms according to common ancestry o Therefore, determined by morphological characteristics (similar physical traits),  molecular/genetics characteristics (DNA data), and biochemistry  Homology­ similarities in physical characteristics and on the molecular level (genetics)  from having a common ancestor ….vs….  Analogy­ similarities simply because they developed in similar environments that they  had to adapt to, resulting in analogous characteristics despite different ancestors o Through process called convergent evolution  Molecular systematics­ the study of species’ genome to compare nucleic acid sequences o DNA from which rRNA derives has few modifications through lineages, therefore  they are referred to as conserved genes and can then be looked at to relate ancient  ancestry. o On the other hand, DNA for mitochondria changes quickly on the evolutionary scale,  and therefore can relate more recent relations between species.  Endosymbiotic Theory­ by Lynn Margulis­ ancestral prokaryotes took in (similar to  phagocytosis) aerobic bacterium then photosynthetic bacterium, resulting in mitochondria then chloroplasts as they lived together and formed a more efficient cell (the bacterium  help with energy production and usage). Then more powerful and complex organisms  could form.  Horizontal gene transfer­ occurs when one organism places genes in another, resulting in  an organism with more than its initial natural genes o By way of viral infection, fusion (or engulfing) of other organisms, or exchange of  small bits of DNA (through methods like a sex pilus)


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