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Notes for Week of January 18

by: Macen Notetaker

Notes for Week of January 18 CHEM1041

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Chemistry > CHEM1041 > Notes for Week of January 18
Macen Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover the material for the week of January 18, including the Snow Day Video.
General Chemistry 2
Dr. Waddell
Class Notes
General Chemistry 2
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Macen Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM1041 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Waddell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
CHEM1041 General Chemistry 2 Notes for Week of January 18 Snow Day Video Intermolecular Forces in Relation to Other Properties Intermolecular forces are determined by a number of things, but the polarizability of the molecules involved is one of the most important. Polarizability trends down and to the left, and as a result so does the likelihood that the molecule has a higher amount of IMFs. Molecular shape also determines some of these qualities, as more spread out molecules will have more surface area and are more likely to have higher amounts of IMFs. 1. Boiling Point a. As discussed previously, the point at which the internal pressure is equal to the external pressure in a liquid. b. As Intermolecular forces increase, the boiling point will also increase. 2. Viscosity a. The amount of resistance to flow that a fluid has, viscous fluids are often described as “thick.” b. As temperature increases, viscosity will increase. c. As intermolecular forces increase, viscosity will increase. 3. Vapor Pressure a. Pressure exerted by the vapor of a sample onto the liquid portion of that sample. b. As intermolecular forces increase, vapor pressure will decrease. c. This is because a large amount of IMFs will prevent the liquid from evaporating, decreasing the amount of vapor present and therefore decreasing the vapor pressure. Unique Properties of Water Water’s unique properties are a result of its strong intermolecular forces, and its ability to form four hydrogen bonds. As a result of water’s high intermolecular forces: 1. Water has a very high heat capacity a. Heat Capacity – Amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water by 1 C 2. Water has a very high heat of vaporization a. Heat of Vaporization – Amount of heat required to raise water to its boiling point 3. Water has a very high surface tension 4. Water is a universal solvent Ice has an open structure due to the Hydrogen bonding, which causes ice to be less dense than liquid water. This is why ice will float in water, rather than sinking. Solids Divided into two categories: Crystalline solids have well defined shapes Amorphous solids lack this orderly arrangement Three Dimensional Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells There are three types of unit cells that we will focus on, each of them is represented as a perfect cube. Unit Cell Coordination Atoms Per Unit Length of One Number Cell Side Simple Cubic 6 1 ???? = 2 ∗ ???? Body Centered 8 2 4 ???? = ∗ ???? √ 3 Face Centered 12 4 ???? = √ 8 ∗ ???? For length, A is the length of one side, and r is the radius of one atom. There are five varieties of crystalline solids: Crystalline Solid Description Examples Atomic Individual atoms held Ne, Ar, Group 8A together by dispersion forces Molecular Individual atoms held 2 , 2 O, NH3, CO2 together by various IMFs Ionic Regular array of cations NaCl, KBr, CaCO 3 and anions Metallic Organized crystal structure Na, Zn, all metals of metal nuclei with surrounding electrons Network Covalent Atoms covalently bonded C (Graphite), SiO2(Quartz) together in a 3D network


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