NTRI 2000 Dr Greene- Week 1 Notes
NTRI 2000 Dr Greene- Week 1 Notes NTRI 2000-002
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Ferrell on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 1/15/16 Chapter 1: What you eat and why What is Nutrition? • Nutrition-‐ the science that links food to health and disease o Includes the processes by which food is ingested, digested, absorbed, transported, metabolized, and excreted from the body • Nutrient-‐ a component of food that is indispensable to the functioning of the body o Provides energy o Acts as building blocks o Support growth o Maintain and repair body • Essential Nutrient-‐ body can’t make enough of it on its own o 3 Criteria: § 1) Must have a specific function in the body § 2) Omission of nutrient leads to decline in function § 3) Replacing of nutrient restores normal function o Must be obtained by diet Food As Nourishment: • By the age of 65, 70,000 meals (50 tons of food) are eaten • Foods have cumulative effects on health o Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle= risk factors o can lead to various chronic diseases like heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, or obesity • Malnutrition-‐ any condition causes by a deficiency or excess of nutrient intake o Only tobacco use proven to have bigger effect on health Nutrition and Disease: • Poor dietèrisk for chronic disease o Cardiovascular disease (heart disease) These diseases account for 2/3 of o Cancer (some, not all) all deaths in the U.S. o Hypertension (high blood pressure) -‐The common link=obesity o Diabetes o Liver disease • Leading causes of deaths in the U.S. o 1) Heart disease *need to know #1 o 2) Cancer and #2 cause o 3) Chronic Lung Disease o 4)Stroke o 5) Accidents o 6) Alzheimer’s o 7) Diabetes Six Classes of Essential Nutrients • Macronutrients o Carbs (C,H,O) Body’s main form of obtaining energy directly o Lipids (fats)(C,H,O) o Proteins (C,H,O,N) o Water(important solvent to body) • Micronutrients o Vitamins (help important chemical reactions to occur in the body) o Minerals (inorganic, do not provide calories) Non-‐nutrients in Food: • Phytochemicals=plant compounds o Many think these cause health benefit o Ex. Carotenoids= orange color in carrots; resveratrol=color to red wine Energy Yielding Nutrients: • Originally comes from the sun (exception= hydrothermal vents) • Overall reaction: lightèenergy • Photosynthesis: CO2+H20+lightèCH0+O2 • Metabolism: CHO+O2+CO2èCO2+H20 • Measure of energy in nutrients o calorie, kcal=unit that describes energy content of food o also defined as heat energy needed to raise temperature of 1L of H2O 1degree Celsius o 1 kcal=1000cal o 1 Cal=1 kcal • Energy in nutrients *Use these measurements to calculate calories and %fat/carb/protein o Carb-‐ 4kcal/gram out of the total calories o Lipid-‐ 9kcal/gram o Protein-‐ 4kcal/gram o Alcohol-‐ 7kcal/gram § Not a nutrient, actually a toxin • Example of how to calculate calories o Carbs: 46 g x 4= 184kcal o Fat: 14g x 9= 126kcal o Protien:45g x 4=180kcal Total: 490kcal • Example of how to calculate % of total calories o %Carb: 184kcal÷490kcal=37% o %Fat: 126kcal÷490kcal=26% o %Protein: 45kcal÷490kcal=9% Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 1/20/16 Healthy People 2020: Nutrition and Weight Status Categories and Objectives: • basically are tips for healthy eating • 1) Eat more fruits (for people age 2 and above) • 2) Increase variety and quantity of vegetables • 3) Increase whole grains • 4) Decrease calories from solid fats and added sugars • 5) Decrease saturated fats • 6) Decrease sodium • 7) Increase calcium Why do you choose the foods you eat?: • Biological drives o Hunger-‐ a physiological drive to eat; controlled by internal influences o Appetite-‐ a psychological drive to eat; controlled by external influences o Satiety-‐ the feeling of being full; temporarily stops your drive to eat • Cultural drives o Social needs o Family and friends influence-‐ depends on region you are from o Lifestyle o Routines/ habits o Education, occupation, and income o food cost o food marketing o food availability o food flavor o Reasons to select a certain food: § Positive associations § Region of the country/world-‐ ex. differences in nutrition for SE and NE USA § Social pressures-‐ex. today a social norm is eating out more than at home § Values or beliefs-‐ ex. Some religions do not eat meat The Challenge in Choosing Foods: • Many choices in food, but this variety makes it harder to choose a nutritious diet • In today’s world, things like product websites, calorie counters, and apps help us make healthy choices How to maintain Wellness in College: • 1) Develop a Plan o eating habits o food choices o weight control (hard when faced with unlimited food) o exercise regularly • Freshman “15” o Somewhat of a myth o Most students gain 4-‐6 lbs o How to avoid it: § Eat breakfast § Plan your meals ahead of time § Limit liquid calories (aka soda)(also alcohol too) § Keep healthy options in your fridge or where it is readily available Rachel Ferrell NTRI 2000 1/22/16 Chapter 2: Designing a Healthy Diet • In a practical way, it will help design a diet that will decrease risk for nutrition related diseases Food Philosophy • Rule: Consume a variety of foods balances by a moderate intake of each food o Control what you eat o Pay attention to what you eat (fruits, veggies, etc.) o Exercise 6 Characteristics of a Healthy Diet: • Variety o Choosing a number of different foods within any given food group o No single food meets our nutritional requirement o Phytochemicals-‐ found in a variety of foods, known as functional foods o Note that supplements don’t have all of the same components as actual food does o Tips to increase variety/phytochemicals: § Eat a colorful array of vegetables as well as fruits § Fruit juice instead of soda § Whole grain option • Balance o Select from 5 major food groups everyday: § Grains § Vegetables § Fruits § Milk (dairy) § Protein • Moderation o Refers mostly to portion size (calorie but also diet composition) Try to limit: § Fats • Saturated fats • Trans-‐fats § Salt § Cholesterol § Refined carbs (sugar) • Adequacy o Obtaining all essential nutrients to meet body’s needs plus more for storage • Nutrient Density o Has to do with nutritional quality of food o Nutrient density= nutrient content of food per calorie o High nutrient density= many nutrients, few calories o Low nutrient density= “junk food” or empty calories o Diet planning should focus mainly on total diet, not selection of one critical food for adequacy o However, foods with high nutrient density help balance food with low nutrient density • Energy Density o Ensures that you receive enough, but not too many calories→to maintain healthy weight o energy density= caloric content of food per gram o high energy foods-‐ nuts, fried food, cookies (lots of calories but don’t weigh much) o low energy foods-‐ promote satiety without high calorie count(weigh a lot with low calories) § because they contain a high amount of water and fiber o foods with high fat→high energy density o foods with high water and fiber→low energy density States of Nutritional Health: • determined by considering nutritional state of each needed nutrient • 3 categories o desirable nutrition o undernutrition § not enough intake of important nutrients § surplus is then used→health declines § can take years to develop clinical symptoms, which makes it hard to control o overnutrition § short term→few symptoms § in excess intake continues, nutrients may accumulate to toxic amounts § Vitamin A excess→can cause birth defects § Excess calories→cancer, obesity, CV disease • the amount of each nutrient needed to maintain state of desirable nutrition→basis for dietary intake recommendations • Note: malnutrition includes both undernutrition and overnutrition How is Nutritional State Measured?: • Done by a physician or dietician • First they will determine background factors o Family health history o Medical history o Medication intake o Supplement intake o Social history o Level of education about nutrition o Economic status • Measured by 5 Assessments (ABCDE) o Anthropometric § Height, weight, body composition, circumferences, thicknesses of certain parts of the body o Biochemical § Enzymes or nutrient by-‐product in blood or urine o Clinical § Appearance of skin, eyes, and tongue; loss of hair o Dietary § Food intake o Environmental § Ability to purchase/prepare foods § Education, income, etc. • Limitations to these methods→a long time may elapse before results come back or before clinical evidence can be found
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