Human Anatomy-- Anatomy 2300 (Burgoon) Lec #1
Human Anatomy-- Anatomy 2300 (Burgoon) Lec #1 Anatomy 2300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anatomy 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Burgoon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Anatomy 2300Lec #1 INTRODUCTION Anatomy Defined --Anatomy “Structure.” Science of body structures and the relationship among them. --Regional anatomy = all the structures in a particular area of the body at one time (e.g. lower limb region and all of its vessels, etc.) --Systemic anatomy = study body structure system by system, independent of any region of the body (e.g. cardio, nervous, etc.) --Pro-section… looking at the results of dissection done by someone else. --Dissection… you, yourself, do the dissection. --Both are approached anatomic regionally. --Sub-disciplines --Embryology… study of developing organism from fertilization to birth --Histology… microscopic structure of cells and tissues --“Function always reflects Structure” “Form follows Function” How something is put together will define what it does for you. Ex./ bike with square tires = stationary. Bike w/ round wheels = goes. --True for both Macro and Microscopic --Levels of structural organization 1. Chemical Level… simplest of levels. How atoms molecules organelles. 2. Cellular Level… different types and shapes, therefore functions. Smallest unit of living things. 3. Tissue Level… groups of similar cells that have a common function. Primary tissue types: --epithelium… covers exposed surfaces, lines hollow organs, produces gland secretions --muscle tissue… contracts to produce active movement --connective tissue…fill internal spaces, provide structural support, store energy. --nervous tissue…conducts electrical impulses, and carries info in response to changes. 4. Organ Level… combo of two or more tissues. Allow for complex functions. 5. Organ System Level… combo of two or more organs. Organs work together for a common purpose. Some organs are in multiple systems (e.g. pancreas = digestive, endocrine) --Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, respiratory, digestive, lymphatic, urinary, cardiovascular (circulatory), and reproductive) 6. Organism level… highest level of functioning. Body Systems --Skeletal System --Major components… bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints --Major functions…. Support, leverage, protection, hematopoiesis, mineral storage, energy storage (adipose tissue stores as triglycerides) --Muscular System --Major components… skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle --Major functions… producing movement, producing heat (i.e. thermogenesis) --Cardiovascular System --Major components… heart, blood vessels, and blood --Major function… transportation of O , 2utrients, CO ,2wastes, and hormones --Lymphatic System --Major components… lymph vessels, lymph nodes, thymus gland, tonsils, spleen --Major functions… fluid control, filtration, and immunity --Nervous System --Major components… brain, spinal organs, nerves, and sense organs --Major functions… communication and homeostasis (maintaining a relatively stable internal environment separate from the continuously changing external environment) --Endocrine System --Major components… hormone producing glands, and cells --Major functions… communication and homeostasis --Respiratory System --Major components… nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs --Major function… gas exchange --Digestive system --Major components… alimentary canal, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas --Major functions…. Mechanical & chemical breakdown of food, absorption, solid waste removal --Urinary System --Major components… kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra --Major functions… filtration, elimination --Reproductive system --Major components…. --Males: testes, penis, duct system, glands --Females: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia --Major functions… production of hormones, formation of germ cells, housing developing fetus --Integumentary system --major components… Skin, accessory structures (sebaceous (oil) glands, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, hair, and nails) --Structure… two major layers 1. Epidermis…. outermost layer of skin, epithelial tissue, very dense. Deep cells doing mitosis push up old cells and the old cells make keratin (kills the cells). Plasma membrane surrounds the keratin and these cells are what’s left on the surface to provide protection and act as a barrier. ~40 lbs of these cells lost during lifetime 2. Dermis… inner layer of the skin, connective tissue. Hair follicles, parts of glands, vessels, etc. all found in here. Blood vessels in dermis rely on diffusion with epidermis. 3. Hypodermis… aka subcutaneous layer, right under the dermis, above muscle. It’s a fatty layer of adipose tissue. Where fat builds as people gain weight, this layer thickens. --major functions… protection, temperature regulation, waste elimination, and sensation. Anatomical Position and Directional Terms --Human anatomical position… reference point when describing relationships between parts --Body is erect (standing) --eyes faced forward --Feet are flat on floor, and parallel --Palms face forward, thumbs point outward --Head is level --Prone = body lies face down. --Supine = body lies face up. --Right and left refer to the patient or cadaver’s right and left, not yours. --Directional terms --Medial (nearer to the midline) and Lateral (further from the midline) --Ipsilateral (structures on same side of body) and Contralateral (structures on opposite sides of body) --Anterior/Ventral (towards the front of body) and Posterior/Dorsal (towards the back of body) --Superior/Cranial (towards the upper part/head of human) and Inferior/Caudal (away from upper part, caudal means closer to the tail of human) --Superficial (closer to the surface) and Deep (further from the surface) --Proximal (closer to the origination of body part, closer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk) and Distal (further from the origination of body part, farther from attachment of limb to trunk) --Regional Terms --Two divisions 1. Axial…. Head, neck, and trunk (i.e. thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) 2. Appendicular…. Appendages or limbs --Two major regions of upper limb 1. Arm… shoulder to elbow. Aka brachium. 2. Forearm… elbow to wrist. Aka anti-brachium. --Two major region of the lower limb 1. Thigh… hip to knee. 2. Leg… Knee to ankle. --Planes and Sections --Planes = imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body or parts --Sagittal plane… creates right and left parts. VERTICAL. --Midsagittal plane (median plane)… cuts human body into equal left and right parts. --Parasagittal plane… NOT at the midline, cuts body into unequal left and right parts. --Frontal or Coronal plane… divides the body or part into anterior and posterior parts. VERTICAL. --Transverse or Horizontal plane… divides the body or part into superior and inferior parts. HORIZONTAL. Used for sectional anatomy (e.g. MRI, CT scans, etc.). Body Cavities --Dorsal body cavity… two major subdivisions --Cranial cavity…. Houses the brain --Vertebral cavity (spinal cavity)…. Houses the spine --Ventral body cavity… houses the viscera (internal organs). Diaphragm divides the two major subdivisions. --Thoracic cavity… superior to the diaphragm. --Pleural cavities… each houses a lung. --Mediastinum… found between the two pleural cavities. --Pericardial cavity… within the mediastinum. Houses the heart. --Abdominopelvic cavity… inferior to the diaphragm. --Abdominal cavity --Pelvic cavity
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