Human Anatomy-- Anatomy 2300 (Burgoon) Lec #3
Human Anatomy-- Anatomy 2300 (Burgoon) Lec #3 Anatomy 2300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anatomy 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Burgoon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Anatomy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Anatomy 2300Lec#3 BONES OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE AND LOWER LIMBS Bone Markings --Tuberosity: large rounded projection… may be roughened. --Crest: narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent. Ex./ Iliac Crest --Trochanter: very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (only on femurs) --Line: narrow ridge of bone, less prominent than a crest --Tubercle: small, rounded projection or process --Epicondyle: raised area on or above a condyle --Spine: sharp, slender, often pointed projection --Process: any bony prominence --Head: bony expansion carried on a narrow neck --Facet: smooth, neatly flat articular surface --Condyle: rounded articular projection --Ramus: arm-like bar of bone. --Meatus: canal-like passageway --Sinus: cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucus membrane --Fossa: shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface --Groove: furrow --Fissure: narrow, slit-like opening --Foramen: round or oval opening through a bone. The Pelvic Girdle --Composed of two ossa coxae (appendicular skeleton, also known as the hip bones) and the sacrum (axial skeleton). Singular coxal bone for hip bone. --Sacroiliac joints… connects the hip bones with the sacrum. Connect the axial and appendicular skeleton. --Pubic symphysis… connects the hip bones in the pubic area. Made of fibrocartilage—usually thicker in women than in men. During last trimester, women produce relaxant to relax this cartilage, allow hip bones to separate, & increases diameter of birth canal at the pelvic outlet. --Tilted forward… looks like a tipped forward bucket. --Anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS)… --Pubic tubercles… --These two must be in the same coronal plane, in order to orient the tilt of the girdle. --Pelvic brim… a bony edge that marks the difference between true pelvis and false pelvis. --Superior to pelvic brim = false pelvis… between the two iliac, and is part of the abdomen and contain parts of the viscera --Inferior to the pelvic brim = true pelvis… contains the pelvic organs --Sacrum… part of the axial skeleton, formed by the fusion of 5 vertebrae. Coccyx is NOT part of pelvic girdle. --Anterior sacral foramina… branches of spinal nerves pass through the foramina. --Posterior sacral foramina --Sacral canal…part of the vertebral canal, different nerves and nerve roots held within. --Median sacral crest… ridge formed down the center of the sacrum on the posterior side --Auricular surface… where the joint between the iliac and the sacrum is formed. Ear-shaped. --Os Coxae… Be able to distinguish left from right!!! Other names: innominate, coxal, or hip bone. --Composed of 3 bones that have fused together with cartilage. --Ilium: most superior part --Iliac crest: the uppermost rim of the ilium. Highest point is at the L4 level of spine, same level as the belly button --Anterior-superior iliac spine: found on the end of iliac crest. Used to orient hip bones because in the same coronal plane of the pubic tubercle. --Anterior-inferior iliac spine: found just under the ASIS. --Posterior-superior iliac spine: found on end of iliac crest --Posterior-inferior iliac spine: found just under the PSIS. --Sacro-iliac joint = auricular surface of the ilieum where it meets the sacrum. --Pubis: inferior and anterior --Superior ramus --Inferior ramus: comes into contact with the ischial ramus --Ischium: inferior and posterior --Greater sciatic notch: separated from the lesser one by the ischial spine. --Lesser sciatic notch --Ligaments create foramen on both of these, in order to allow passage ways between the pelvis and gluteal region. Ex./ sciatic nerves --Ischial tuberosity: exposed when thigh muscles are flexed (e.g. sitting) --Acetabulum is where all three fused together during puberty (at age 15-17 years of age, completed by age 23). Where the head of the femur connects at the hip joint. Has to point out laterally to come into contact with the medially-facing femur. --Obturator foramen: created by the pubis and ischium, but nothing really goes through it. Bone of the Thigh: Femur --Head: always points in medially so it can articulate at the hip joint --Neck: the supporting length of bone leading to the head. --Greater trochanter: more superior and lateral --Lesser trochanter: more inferior and medial --Medial epicondyle --lateral epicondyles --Epicondyles… the rough areas on the condyles where muscles attach. --Patellar surface: on the anterior side, where the patella articulates. --Intertrochanteric crest: connects the trochanters with a large ridge on posterior side of bone. --Gluteal tuberosity: where the gluteus maximus attaches --Linea aspera: on the posterior side of the femur --Popliteal surface: where the linea aspera branches out, triangular-shaped. The superior half of the floor of the popliteal fossa --Medial condyles: on the same side as the head. A condyle on the inner side of the femur; articulates with the tibia --Adductor tubercle: the extra notch on the medial condyle where muscles attach. --Lateral condyles: works with the medial condyle to articulate with the tibia. --Intercondylar fossa: in between the medial and lateral condyles. Patella --Is a sesamoid bone… found in tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle where they all connect to the tibia. Inferior portion on the tendon can also be called the patellar ligament. --Anterior side is rough, posterior side is very smooth. Bones of the Leg: Tibia and Fibula --Tibia… found more medially --Medial and lateral condyles: found on the superior end, and meant for articulation with the femur and connect at the knee joint. --Tibial tuberosity: on the anterior side, where the quad tendon inserts. --Anterior boarder of the tibia (shin): sharp ridge on the shaft. --Medial malleolus: ALWAYS on the malleolus, the bump felt on inner ankle. Use to orient bone. --Fibula… found more laterally. NOT the weight-bearing bone. Does NOT participate in action at knee. --Head of the fibula: superior end. More rounded. --Lateral malleolus: Makes the bump on the outer ankle. More pointed. On the posterior, there is a fossa that allows muscles to turn to go into foot. Use this to orient front/back. --The malleoli hold onto the Talus bone of the ankle region. They permit Dorsiflexion (moving foot towards shin) and plantar flexion (moving foot away from shin) and keep the ankle stable Bones of the Foot --Tarsal bones… bones of the ankle region. Short bones. --Talus… ankle bone --Calcaneus… heel bone. Allows for inversion (sole of foot towards midline) and eversion (sole of foot moved laterally) and occurs at the intertarsal joint. Inversion is easier. More likely to roll your ankle due to over inversion because more room & lateral limits are weaker. --Navicular --Cuneiforms (3)…. Medial, intermediate, and lateral --Cuboid… closest to the pinkie --Metatarsals (5)… found ~halfway through the foot. Named 1-5, medial to lateral. Long bones. --Phalanges (14)… singular = phalanx. Named 1-5, medial to lateral. Long bones. --3 classifications 1. Proximal 2. Middle 3. Distal --Digit 1 (big toe, hallux) only has 2 phalanges associated with it. Proximal and Distal.
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