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Human Physiology week one

by: Nia Long

Human Physiology week one 30030

Marketplace > Kent State University > Biological Sciences > 30030 > Human Physiology week one
Nia Long
GPA 3.6
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About this Document

hey these are my first set of notes and i think you guys will find them useful topic: homeostasis
Allison M Grampa (P)
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Long on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 30030 at Kent State University taught by Allison M Grampa (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
1/24/16 Chapter 1: Homeostasis  State of reasonably stable balance between physiological variables  Examples: o Temperature, glucose, tissue, heart rate, respiratory rate, calcium levels  Has a normal set range o Blood, gases, ion  Loss of homeostasis may result in disease  Example: response to cold temperature  Physiological  shiver-warms up body by contracting muscles  blood vessels-constrict to keep blood at core of the body  lose less heat by keeping blood at core of body • Behavioral • drink warm drinks, sit by heater, wear warm clothes • Like the thermostat in your house: when temp drops in the house your heater kicks on to bring temp back up to normal • Normal body temp= 98.6 with some wiggle room • Not all factors have the same range • Blood Ph has narrow range 7.4 (7.35-7.45)  Negative feedback: changes in a variable bring out changes to maintain homeostasis o Response to an external variable o Response to changing external conditions o Can be reversed o Negative feedback allows you to correct and turn off when homeostasis goes back to normal o Can be made again 1/24/16  Positive feedback: acceleration of a process, leading the organism away from homeostasis, less common o Has a particular purpose o Increases over time o Needs a trigger to stop the loop o Ex: fever, child birth o Oxytocin- released from brain during child birth, involuntary contractions (uterus), binds to uterus pushes on the baby and sends signal to brain o as labor progresses contractions get stronger and faster o stops when baby is born o can use Pitocin to induce labor and kick start positive feedback loop  Set point: optimal value within an acceptable range o Can be reset to a different value o Example: body temperature  When you have a fever your set point shifts and you shiver to adjust to the change  Feedforward: internal changes are made in anticipation of a stimulus o Example: digestion  stomach growling  salivation  enzymes produced o All happens when you anticipate eating o Example: exercise  get on the treadmill knowing you hate it  get anxious  Reflex: specific and involuntary response to a specific stimulus o May be inherent, may be learned/acquired o Examples?  Startle reflex: involuntary  Touch a hot stove and pull your hand away: involuntary 1/24/16  Salivation with anticipation of food  Driving: originally its learned but eventually you can drive without concentrating on where you’re going Integrating Center Afferent Pathway Efferent Pathway Effector Receptor Stimulus Response Negative Feedback • Intracellular chemical messengers : Intercellular messengers allow cells to communicate with one another  Hormones 1/24/16  Neurotransmitters  Paracrine/autocrine Hormones: specifically travel through… o Secreted from?  Endocrine organs: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, testes, ovaries, adrenal glands o Where are target cells typically located?  Usually far away anatomically  Neurotransmitters: released from…. Cells o Target cells include other neurons, muscle cells, gland cells o Location of target cells?  Glands, muscles, other neurons  Often very close to target  Synapse or synaptic clef is in-between space  Paracrine substances: local communication between nearby cells Released into extracellular fluid o Change the activity of nearby cells o often broken down by enzymes in extracellular fluid o Immune system o Growth factors: stimulate sells to divide  Autocrine substances: acts on the cell that it was released from 1/24/16 o Autocrine are usually also paracrine o Binds to exact same cell  Adaptation and Acclimation  Adaptation: any characteristic that favors survival o Ex: homeostasis  Acclimatization: a type of adaptation that allows improved functioning benefit o Reversible if stimulus is no longer present o Example: sweating o Benefit individual but is not passed down to offspring o Circumstantial o Sweating happens when your put in an environment that is hotter than your comfortable temp. Once your body becomes use to that temperature you don’t sweat as much. Your body resets when it is in a new environment o Ex: altitude o Athletes want to increase their blood cell count o When they start there training it is very difficult but eventually it becomes a lot easier as long as you stay in that altitude  Biological Rhythms o Circadian rhythm: follows a cycle of approximately 24 hours  Managed by hypothalamus 1/24/16  Promotes feedforward mechanisms  Internally driven, not driven by environmental factors  Examples:  Sleep\wake patterns  Meals  Animal mating cycle  Hormones  Body temperature o Phase-shift: resetting of the internal clock  Not immediate, requires time to adapt  Examples:  Jet lag: time zone difference  Depends on how many time zones you shifted  Day\night shift  Adjust sleeping and eating habit o Melatonin  Hormone from the pineal gland  In the brain, looks like a pine cone  Secreted in the dark  Makes you feel tired  Makes cells less active and tones down alertness  Feel more tired in the winter vs the summer 1/24/16  Cause seasonal depression disorder o General Principles  1. Homeostasis is essential for health and survival.  Mostly negative feedback  2. The functions of organ systems are related with each other.  Organs aren’t that independent they influence each other  3. Most physiological functions are controlled by multiple systems, often opposites.  More than one source of influence  4. The flow of information between cells, tissues, and organs are an important feature of homeostasis and allows for involvement of physiological processes.  Autonomic nervous system  Sympathetic and parasympathetic  5. Controlled exchange of materials occurs between small sections and across cellular membranes.  Gas exchange, nephrons of kidneys, digestion  6. Physiological processes are dictated by the laws of chemistry and physics.  Chemical and physical perspective, blood flow 1/24/16  7. Physiological processes require the movement and balance of matter and energy.  How things shift and move  8. Structure is a determination of and has also evolved with the function.  How they are put together 


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