Chem 107 Week 1 of notes
Chem 107 Week 1 of notes Chem 107
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Johnson on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 107 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Jacqueline Butler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 257 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Health Science in Chemistry at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Unit 1: Basic Concepts in Chemistry and Atoms and the Periodic Table- Chapter 1 1. Classification of Matter a. States of matter i. 3 states of matter 1. Solid- atoms are closely packed and hold a specific shape; atoms vibrate 2. Liquid- atoms are packed together loosely and are able to move around one another; do not hold a shape, but instead take the shape of their container 3. Gas- atoms are very spread out and particles can move freely in all directions allowing it to diffuse and fill its container ii. Molecules in all three are in constant motion unless at absolute 0 (0° Kelvin) b. Composition i. Types 1. Pure Substances a. One type of particle b. Always remain the same between samples c. Elements- substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions i. Basic building blocks of matter ii. Contain a single type of atom d. Compounds- combination of two or more kinds of atoms and is able to be broken down/decomposed 2. Mixtures a. Multiple types of particles b. May show different intensive properties of its components c. Types i. Homogeneous- uniform throughout, looks same 1. Ex: tea, paper ii. Heterogeneous- not uniform throughout 1. Ex: sand and water, salad dressing c. Physical and Chemical Properties i. Physical 1. Can be measured without changing the identity of the substance 2. Remain the same always in one substance 3. Ex: melting point, boiling point, color, etc. ii. Chemical 1. How a substance reacts with something else 2. Look for the words react, burn, combustion, or other words that indicate a change 3. Ex: iron rusts, gasoline burns in air, nitric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide, etc. d. Physical and Chemical Changes i. Physical 1. Original substance still exists in a new form 2. Ex: boiling of water- the water can be recreated if you trap the vapor; the tearing of paper- it is still paper just smaller ii. Chemical 1. A new substance has been created; you cannot get the old one back since it has become something else 2. Ex: a boiled egg- you cannot regain the uncooked egg since it has created a new substance; burnt paper- you cannot have white paper again as it has become ash e. Intensive and extensive properties i. Extensive 1. Depends on the amount of a substance 2. Think EXTERNAL 3. Mass and Volume are examples ii. Intensive 1. Is based on the substance itself not the quantity 2. Think INTERNAL 3. Color, Density, or hardness are considered intensive f. Chemical Observations i. Qualitative 1. Physical descriptions, properties, any word definitions of a substance ii. Quantitative 1. Is any numerical value associated with a substance iii. Accuracy 1. Closeness to a true or accepted value 2. In darts, if you shoot all close to the bullseye iv. Precision 1. Closeness of measurements to each other 2. In darts, if all shots are not close to the bullseye but close to each other **** The more tics on a ruler, thermometer, etc. make it more accurate and precision becomes easier ***Digit of inaccuracy/ uncertainty- the number you guess beyond the closest known value (WHAT YOU KNOW PLUS ONE VARIABLE NUMBER) 2. Significant figures (REVIEW EXAMPLES AND HER WORKSHEETS) a. What i. The digits displayed in any measurements that are known with a certainty plus the digit of uncertainty b. Guidelines for significant digits i. Digits 1-9 are ALWAYS significant ii. Leading zeros are nit significant iii. If a zero is surrounded by a 1-9, it is significant iv. Trailing zeros are only significant if followed by a decimal point c. Rules for sig figs in calculations i. Addition/Subtraction 1. Line up 2. Draw a vertical line where the shortest number ends 3. Round if necessary *YOU ARE LIMITED BY THE ACCURACY OF THE SHORTEST NUMBER ii. Multiplication/Division 1. Multiply numbers 2. Round final number based on the number with the smallest number of sig figs at the end of the calculation not during 3. Scientific Notation a. Always a multiple of ten i. A x 10^B 1. A= coefficient that depends on the number of sig figs 2. B= exponent (number of digits after the first sig fig) b. Numbers greater than 1 have a positive exponent, if between 0 and 1 have a negative 4. Temperature a. Measure f the amount of kinetic energy (energy based in the movement of atoms) b. Vibrations/friction of atoms causes heat c. High temperature= high thermal energy d. Heat can only transfer from a warm substance to a colder substance by collision of molecules until they reach the same temperature e. Scales i. Fahrenheit 1. US only 2. Do not need to know conversions to or from Celsius ii. Celsius 1. All other countries, general use iii. Kelvin 1. Absolute scale 2. Directly proportional to amount of kinetic energy 3. Zero degrees kelvin is absolute zero 4. K= Celsius temp + 273 5. Metric Units (ONLY NEED TO KNOW METRIC TO METRIC CONVERSIONS) a. Units i. Length= meter (m) ii. Volume- liter (l) iii. Mass- gram (g) iv. Time- second (s) v. Temperature – Kelvin (K) vi. Energy- joule (j) vii. Amount of a substance- mole (mol) b. Prefixes i. Giga- G 10^9 ii. Mega- M 10^6 iii. Kilo- k 10^3 iv. Deci- d 10^-1 v. Centi- c 10^-2 vi. Milli- m 10^-3 vii. Micro- ɥ 10^-6 viii. Nano- n 10^-9 ix. Pico- p 10^-12 6. Mathematical Operation a. Make sure you have only one unit when adding and subtracting i. Use conversion factors to convert one unit to another oneof aunit multipleof oneunit ii. or multipleof oneunit oneof aunit iii. Each conversion is basically multiplying by 1, and just allows for a unit to be cancelled out b. Dimensional analysis i. Using multiple conversion factors to change the units of an equation ii. Ex: miles per hour to feet per second ***** This is the end of the material that will be covered on Tuesday’s quiz 7. Density a. Density is the ratio of an objects mass to its volume m b. d= v c. Normally expressed in: i. g/mL for liquids ii. g/cm for solids iii. g/L for gases ***** mL and cm are equivalent when in conversions ***** A liter is 1000 mL so it is also 1000 cm3 d. Solids are generally more dense that liquids which are more dense than gases I will post chapter 2 along with or included in the study guide! Send me an email if you have any questions!
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