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BIOL 111 Week 1 Notes

by: Jasmine Padgett

BIOL 111 Week 1 Notes BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Jasmine Padgett
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About this Document

These notes cover the cell cycle and mitosis.
Fundamentals of Biology II
Dr. Athena Anderson
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Padgett on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Dr. Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II in Biology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
Cell Division  Reproduction is the key characteristic of life  3 things are required: o Genetic material is to be replicated o Genetic material must be affectively segregated o The cytoplasm must be divided  Must be a controlled process o Uncontrolled process could lead to issues such as cancer (tumors)  Must be responsive to the environmental conditions Binary Fission  Asexual reproduction in bacteria  Duplication and segregation of genetic material take place at the same time o Used to be thought of as a passive process o Presently known as an active process that is controlled by cells  There isn’t as much genetic material as in prokaryotes o Single circular chromosome generally o Replication and segregation is simplified greatly  Replication begins at a unique site o Origin of replication-this is where replication begins o Bidirectional (goes in both directions) to unique site: terminus  Also asexual reproduction for single-celled eukaryotes  Allows for regeneration in some starfish (growing new limbs) Chromosomes/terms  Apart of eukaryotic cell division  Nomenclature of chromosomes: o Single chromatid o Replication-copying of genetic material o Two chromatids  Centromere: visible constriction o Where the sister chromatids are held together o Consists of repeated short DNA sequence  Kinetochore: proteins at centromere-the group of microtubules o Provide a place of attachment for microtubules in mitosis  Telomeres: ends (tips) of chromosomes, also specialized structures o Replicated by special protein known as Telomerase Problems Cells Must Solve  Compaction of chromosomes o Chromosomes are too long when they are straight to fit into the nucleus o Must stay folded at all times  Replication of genetic material and separation of chromosomes occur at different times o Chromosomes don’t have “labels” o Chromatids and chromosomes must remain attached until separated o Once unattached it is irreversible Chromosome Compaction  Chromosomes are larger than the cells themselves when not compacted  Chromosome must be compacted or folded down o Complex with proteins o Supercoiled by topoisomerase  Problem for replication and segregation  Chromosome is attached to the plasma membrane as well Eukaryotic Cell Cycle  There is strict genetic control when it comes to cell division in eukaryotes o This process of control is called the cell cycle  There are 5 parts of the cell cycle: o Interphase:  G1: first gap phase (pre-replication)  S: DNA synthesis(replication of genetic material), centrosome also duplicates  G2: second gap phase (post-replication) o M: for Mitosis  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase o Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm to make two cells from one 2 Irreversible Steps  Start: the commitment to division at all o Commitment to DNA replication o Can be from G or0from the preceding cycle o Happens before the S phase: the G 1S boundary o This is also known as the restriction point  Anaphase: the separation (pulling apart) of chromosomes during anaphase in mitosis o Once chromatids become detached and are no longer together they must segregate into two new cells Without control…  Division could occur without completely replicated DNA o Could more than likely be lethal  Division could occur with damaged DNA o This could also be lethal as well as lead to cancer  The cell controls the cell cycle with several checkpoints throughout: o Points where the cell cycle may be halted o Start or restriction point o G2 phase/Mitosis transition o Anaphase  If it fails to “pass the test”: cycle halted Mitosis  This is the most familiar part of cell cycle  Used for segregation of the chromosomes  There is also an extensive alteration to the cytoskeleton  Stages: o PMAT:  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase o Prophase  Chromosomes are condensed  Nuclear membrane breaks down and disappears  Spindles are formed  Chromosomes attach to spindles at the centromere o Metaphase  Chromosomes are moved to line up at the metaphase plate  Chromatids are still attached at centromeres  Centromeres (kinetochore) attach to opposite poles of the cell by microtubules  Chromosomes are then pulled towards opposite poles o Anaphase  Centromeres “divide” or split apart when the chromatids separate (now called chromosomes)  Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles o Telophase  Chromosomes become uncondensed  The nuclear membrane reappears o Cytokinesis  This is the actual process of dividing one cell into two different cells  Divides cytoplasmic contents as well  Animals: use a contractile ring  Plants: cell plate forms between cells forming the new cell wall


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