Notes for Week 2 of classes
Notes for Week 2 of classes Chem 107
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Johnson on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 107 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Jacqueline Butler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Health Science in Chemistry at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Unit 1 Basic Concepts in Chemistry and Atoms and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 1 Dalton s Atomic Theory a All matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms i There are 119 of them and they are called elements ii Atoms are building blocks b All atoms of one type are similar but different from all other atoms c A pure substance is de ned by the number and arrangement of atoms d Chemical changes include unions separations or rearrangements of atoms e Only whole atoms are affected by chemical change 2 Charge a There are positive ions and negative ions b Opposites attract i Positive is attracted to negative c Like charges repel i Positive will not bond with a positive and same with negative and negative d If it is considered neutral it either has no charge or has equal amounts of positive and negative charges 3 Atoms a About i They are extremely small particles that are unobservable to the naked eye or even with a very strong microscope 1 Scanning Tunnel Microscopes allow for the best view of an atom and its vague structure ii Each atom contains a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons no charge iii Each nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of electrons H b Modern Atomic Theory i Protons 1 Located in the nucleus 2 Weigh 100727 AMU 3 Have a 1 charge 4 THE NUMBER OF PROTONS DOES NOT CHANGE AND THIS IS WHAT DEFINES THE ATOM AS A SPECIFIC ELEMENT ii Neutrons 1 Located in the nucleus 2 Weigh 100866 AMU 3 Have no charge iii Electrons 1 Located outside the nucleus 2 Weigh 0000555 AMU 3 Have a 1 charge c The Periodic Table i Discovered by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 ii Organized by atomic number allowing vertical columns to contain elements with similar properties iii Period elements in one horizontal line on the periodic table iv Group elements in any one column on the periodic table 1 The 8 A groups are known as the main group basically this excludes all of the transition metals 2 Elements within a group have very similar properties Periodic Table of the Elemnts A gs IIIIIII I All I IN I liI v Period and Group Breakdown lA Alkali Metals react easily with water llA Alkali Earth metals VIIA Halogens also reactive elements The 8 B groups lie in the center and are called transition elements or transition metals a The two rows below the periodic table are known as the inner transition metals they break down farther into Lanthanides and Actinides vi Metals Metalloids and Nonmetals 1 Metals a A substance or mixture that has a characteristic luster and is generally a good conductor of heat and electricity Solid a room temperature except mercury which is liquid Malleable and ductile Will lose electrons and form cations in reactions 75 of all elements are metals Lower left portion of table 2 Metalloid or semimetal a Has properties of both metals and nonmetals 3 Nonmetal a Does not exhibit any metal characteristics and is generally a good insulator Found in all three states of matter Poor conductors of heat and electricity Solids are brittle Gain electrons in reactions to become anions Upper right on the periodic table and Hydrogen PWN 5 rhme 73919qu Ga lll Sn Ft TI Pb Bi D5 Um Fl Llulp lLv air Es 55 w 51 laz ls s 64 as Isa IF s39a lEi f0 Tl La CB Pr Nd F ml Sm Eu Gd ii iii I llo Er Tm Yb Lu Ac Til PaH39u inl Pu AmJCm Bk or E5 Fm Md Na tr d Isotopes Atomic Numbers and Mass Numbers i lsotope an element with the same atomic number but a different mass number 1 2 3 ii Atomi 1 iii 1 The number of protons has remained the same but the element has gained or lose neutrons Since protons and neutrons are very heavy in the atomic unit measurements they cause drastic weight changes in isotopes All elements form isotopes c Number Represents both the number of protons and the number of electrons Mass Number Represents the average atomic mass a Protons Neutrons iv Atomic Notations tannin 8 9 mass number A E n atomic number 2 1251 l l EC A Mass Number 2 Atomic Number X Element Symbol Numbers are the opposite from what is displayed on the periodic table where the atomic is on top and the mass is below the symbol e Atomic Theory of Matter i Focuses of the nuclear structure of an isotope 1 Isotopes have the same atomic number but a different mass number a SAME PROTONS DIFFENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS ii FractionalAbundance 1 Fraction of a sample of atoms that is composed of a particular isotope 2 For example Oxygen has three isotopes O16 makes up 9976 of all oxygen O17 makes up 004 and O18 makes up 020 f Average Atomic Mass i Can be determined from the relative amounts of each isotope ii AAM mass of lsotope 1 Fractional abundance mass of lsotope 2 Fractional abundance etc Examples of all types of calculations can be found in the notes as well as on her worksheets in d2L 4 Atomic Structure and Periodicity a Compound Colors i The color of each element is based on the related wavelengths of light as well as the electron locations b Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom i Each electron must have certain orbits based on energy amounts 1 Each energy level has a corresponding quantum number n 2 Each energy level represents a period on the periodic table 17 3 The lowest energy level is known as n1 and increase along with the periods this can increase in nitely but does not reach above 7 ii The amount of absorbed energy must be a speci c amount for the electron to jump between energy levels 1 The same amount will be emitted as the electron falls back down to its primary energy level iii Electron con gurations are used to show electron locations Number mi elleet rein EriermF level a I e In the rhiltal Type Elf rhil all c Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals i Orbital types 1 S a Has one orbital level b Can hold up to 2 electrons c Sphe calshape 2 P Has three orbital levels Can hold up to 6 electrons c Dumbbell shape 0390 Has 5 orbital levels can hold up to 10 electrons c Clover or dumbbell shape 0390 Has 7 orbital levels Can hold up to 14 electrons 0390 each orbital level can hold 2 electrons d Electron Con gurations i Pauli Exclusion Principle 1 No two numbers can have to same set of four quantum numbers ii Aufbau Principle 1 Elements ll from the lowest energy levels to the highest iii Hund s Rule 1 When lling orbitals each orbital level gets an electron before they will double up e Order for lling Atomic Subshells i This will be listed on the top of the test so you know how to ll each shell ii Element with a Z number 1 This number represents the atomic number of the element iii Examples in class or on her D2L Electron Configuration Chart 5 holds up to 2 p holds up to 6 d holds up to 10 l z zds a f Valence Electrons i De nition 1 Valence electrons are the outermost shell of electrons and are the only electrons that can interact with other elements ii Charged Atoms 1 When an element acquired a charge it becomes an ion a Cation has a positive charge due to electron lose i Formed by metals ii Named by adding ion after the element name b Anion has a negative charge due to electron gain i Formed by nonmetals ii Named by changing the end of the element name to ide 2 Neutrally charged atoms behave differently than those that have a charge 3 Charged elements have an electron con guration that looks like a noble gas a THESE ARE CALLED ISOELECTONIC IONS i EX 1 F39 has 10 electrons and its electron con guration would be 152 ZS2 2P9 2 Ne a noble gas has 10 electrons and its electron con guration would be 1SZ ZS2 2P g Trends in the Periodic Table i Atomic Radii 1 De ned as half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms Cngriglhi EIThn Ma rzwaHiEI Companies Inc Pwmisaian miyu39umd Eur mpmmalinmxnr dismay increasing atomic radlius 12 2392 22 22 52 22 22 22 H HE 22 21 2 1 NI 0 E Ne 2L1 Ea v i n r g 122 112 25 2 22 22 22 72 35 Villa 2119 till 1i l 39 Fquot 5 at E 122 120 142 112 112 122 22 22 5 K 1 3C2 1 32 Ga 52 Hr IEquot 22 122 125 122 122 112 112 112 m I r 2 7 El 139 an i Sr In an 22 re u 39 39 W 1 5 222 215 122 122 121 122 122 121 235 3922 711 glib r4211 22 1311 Pin 239 The 2272 222 121 122 122 122 122 142 53929 W39 decrease as you move right due to increase in positive charge in the nucleus 3 The size will increase as you move down the columns due to the number of orbital energy levels ii Ionic Size 1 2 Atoms grow in size as they gain electrons and become more positive Atoms get smaller in size as the lose electrons and have a negative charge Tummun39uin Himlimit J39rid lnni Emil I I39Ii iii 1 iii1 quota Ixi391 N 3w 1 c1 39 39 airm 411w 3939l l n31 uquot 5 39 5F 1 n 39 iii4v li3939i LTII hitii Ilsa Hi IE L I l y 5 ic 3 7 HI I llnl Rh lHl39 Fir 51 111 V 39 liraquot l TL Tc ii i 39 l 33a Lam m I L39 um mu ME 7 133quot Lia 1m s 7
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