Intro to Psych 1: Week 1-2
Intro to Psych 1: Week 1-2 Psych 2010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Foundations of Psychology: Chapter 1 Mind as the Object of Study Mind established as own identity o Mind is separate from the body (Dualism -Descartes, 1630s) Brain and Mind Interact o Descartes Pineal Gland (In brain) o Franz Gall Phrenology Brain is source of some mental abilities (evidence from bumps on skull) Localization of function = specific location for where something is housed Debates Nature vs. Nurture o What determines behavior? o Genetics or environment? o How do these interact? o How does brain determine behavior? Reductionist vs. Holistic o How is the mind studied? o Individual parts or how they work together? Structuralism What are elementary structures of the human mind? Use reductionist approach Wundt (1832-1920) o Experiments by asking people to close eyes, feel object, and describe o People are reporting their thoughts without interpretation o He was trying to come up with a catalogue of sensory experiences Titchener (1867-1927) o Introspection o First attempt to scientifically study the mind Functionalism What do people do and why? William James o First to study memory Distinguish between short and long term o Approach holistically Gestalt Psychology Whole is different from the sum of its parts People see things different in the same pictures Contributes to how structurally organized info is shown in mind Holistic approach Psychoanalytic Theory Theory of personality and treatment o Freud Study people from negative perspective Says what is wrong and how to fix it Explain hysteric behavior/symptoms 1. Childhood experience 2. Sexual urges 3. Unconscious mind No way to verify what he is saying b/c he is last to decide what is happening in unconscious mind Influenced 20th century thought Decline leads to behaviorism and humanism Behaviorism Only observable behaviors should be studied Watson o Felt he could make any person whoever he wanted them to be by changing their environment (radical) Pavlov o Popularized behaviorism Skinner o Casinos Input > The Mind (ignored) > Behavior Humanism Rogers and Maslow o Emphasized positive potential of human beings o Basic need for growth, to fulfill potential Cognitive Psychology Study of mental processes including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning How people learn, store, and use knowledge Cognitive Revolution (1950s) o Computer as model of mind Tracking eye movements on an advertisement o Use many people o When the baby looks at you = more people look at the baby o When the baby looks at text = more people look at the text o Use to show what people pay attention to and how they think Cognitive Neuroscience Links cognitive processes with brain activity Uses imaging to see activity in the brain In pic of brain o Green = activity when looking at words o Red = activity when processing words Critical Thinking is Critical Confirmation Bias o Look for information that supports beliefs Hindsight Bias (aka I knew it all along effect) o Uses after the fact explanations to show thinking Mental Shortcuts o Use available information to make decisions Research Methods: Chapter 2 How do we study psychology? Idea of replication Replication Crisis in Psychology o Significant problem o Perform experiment but results cannot be replicated in another experiment o Have to be careful when studying humans o Example: Stereotype threat People feel threatened and start to confirm stereotype said The problem came when they tried to extend the stereotypes to other groups it didn’t normally effect What psychological question would you like to answer? Dr. Callendar's Example: What are the effects of exercise on stress levels? (This will be used for examples within the research process; they will be written in red) Research Process 1. Formulate a Testable Hypothesis o Operational Definition Description of property in measureable terms Ex: define exercise and define stress 2. Select the Research Method and Design the Study o How will we collect the data? Self-Report Ex: How much do you exercise? What are your stress levels? Observation Ex: Observe what they are doing. Record stress levels, heart rate, blood pressure or anything psychological o What kind of study should we do? Descriptive Case Study Survey Correlational Degree of association (naturally occurring) Useful for Prediction As height increases > weight, vocabulary, and salary increase Think about it as kids growing up and developing over time. Correlation does not = Causation!! Third Variable problem Correlation between 2 variables by causal relationship with 3rd variable Experiment (Gold Standard of Research) Use Control and Manipulation Can establish causation o What variables should be included? Independent Variable of interest that is manipulate to cause change in behavior Ex: Get the people to exercise Control Group - Baseline Ex: The people who don’t exercise Dependent - Outcome Measured variable that is affected by independent variable Ex: Stress Level Extraneous Other variables that influence dependent variable Ex: Gender, age (characteristics of a person) Time of semester, time of day *Think about the effect of ________ (Independent) on _________ (dependent). o Should the same subjects be used in every part of the experiment? Experimental Designs Between Subjects Different subjects in each condition Within Subjects Same subjects in each condition Experimental Studies Advantage of Within Subjects Design: Fewer participants Why use Between subjects Design? Can't give one person all treatments Limitations Can’t control for everything Limited by ethics o How do we avoid bias? 3. Collect the Data 4. Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions 5. Report the Findings
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