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Intro to Psych 1: Week 1-2

by: Meagan

Intro to Psych 1: Week 1-2 Psych 2010

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > Psych 2010 > Intro to Psych 1 Week 1 2
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About this Document

These notes cover the first chapter of lecture and part of the second chapter that we got in lecture. I hope they help.
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, Social Science, Humanities




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Foundations of Psychology: Chapter 1 Mind as the Object of Study  Mind established as own identity o Mind is separate from the body (Dualism -Descartes, 1630s)  Brain and Mind Interact o Descartes  Pineal Gland (In brain) o Franz Gall  Phrenology  Brain is source of some mental abilities (evidence from bumps on skull)  Localization of function = specific location for where something is housed Debates  Nature vs. Nurture o What determines behavior? o Genetics or environment? o How do these interact? o How does brain determine behavior?  Reductionist vs. Holistic o How is the mind studied? o Individual parts or how they work together? Structuralism  What are elementary structures of the human mind?  Use reductionist approach  Wundt (1832-1920) o Experiments by asking people to close eyes, feel object, and describe o People are reporting their thoughts without interpretation o He was trying to come up with a catalogue of sensory experiences  Titchener (1867-1927) o Introspection o First attempt to scientifically study the mind Functionalism  What do people do and why?  William James o First to study memory  Distinguish between short and long term o Approach holistically Gestalt Psychology  Whole is different from the sum of its parts  People see things different in the same pictures  Contributes to how structurally organized info is shown in mind  Holistic approach Psychoanalytic Theory  Theory of personality and treatment o Freud  Study people from negative perspective  Says what is wrong and how to fix it  Explain hysteric behavior/symptoms 1. Childhood experience 2. Sexual urges 3. Unconscious mind  No way to verify what he is saying b/c he is last to decide what is happening in unconscious mind  Influenced 20th century thought  Decline leads to behaviorism and humanism Behaviorism  Only observable behaviors should be studied  Watson o Felt he could make any person whoever he wanted them to be by changing their environment (radical)  Pavlov o Popularized behaviorism  Skinner o Casinos  Input > The Mind (ignored) > Behavior Humanism  Rogers and Maslow o Emphasized positive potential of human beings o Basic need for growth, to fulfill potential Cognitive Psychology  Study of mental processes including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning  How people learn, store, and use knowledge  Cognitive Revolution (1950s) o Computer as model of mind  Tracking eye movements on an advertisement o Use many people o When the baby looks at you = more people look at the baby o When the baby looks at text = more people look at the text o Use to show what people pay attention to and how they think Cognitive Neuroscience  Links cognitive processes with brain activity  Uses imaging to see activity in the brain  In pic of brain o Green = activity when looking at words o Red = activity when processing words Critical Thinking is Critical  Confirmation Bias o Look for information that supports beliefs  Hindsight Bias (aka I knew it all along effect) o Uses after the fact explanations to show thinking  Mental Shortcuts o Use available information to make decisions Research Methods: Chapter 2 How do we study psychology?  Idea of replication  Replication Crisis in Psychology o Significant problem o Perform experiment but results cannot be replicated in another experiment o Have to be careful when studying humans o Example: Stereotype threat  People feel threatened and start to confirm stereotype said  The problem came when they tried to extend the stereotypes to other groups it didn’t normally effect What psychological question would you like to answer?  Dr. Callendar's Example:  What are the effects of exercise on stress levels? (This will be used for examples within the research process; they will be written in red) Research Process 1. Formulate a Testable Hypothesis o Operational Definition  Description of property in measureable terms  Ex: define exercise and define stress 2. Select the Research Method and Design the Study o How will we collect the data?  Self-Report  Ex: How much do you exercise? What are your stress levels?  Observation  Ex: Observe what they are doing. Record stress levels, heart rate, blood pressure or anything psychological o What kind of study should we do?  Descriptive  Case Study  Survey  Correlational  Degree of association (naturally occurring)  Useful for Prediction  As height increases > weight, vocabulary, and salary increase  Think about it as kids growing up and developing over time.  Correlation does not = Causation!!  Third Variable problem  Correlation between 2 variables by causal relationship with 3rd variable  Experiment (Gold Standard of Research)  Use Control and Manipulation  Can establish causation o What variables should be included?  Independent  Variable of interest that is manipulate to cause change in behavior  Ex: Get the people to exercise  Control Group - Baseline  Ex: The people who don’t exercise  Dependent - Outcome  Measured variable that is affected by independent variable  Ex: Stress Level  Extraneous  Other variables that influence dependent variable  Ex: Gender, age (characteristics of a person) Time of semester, time of day *Think about the effect of ________ (Independent) on _________ (dependent). o Should the same subjects be used in every part of the experiment?  Experimental Designs  Between Subjects  Different subjects in each condition  Within Subjects  Same subjects in each condition  Experimental Studies  Advantage of Within Subjects Design:  Fewer participants  Why use Between subjects Design?  Can't give one person all treatments  Limitations  Can’t control for everything  Limited by ethics o How do we avoid bias? 3. Collect the Data 4. Analyze the Data and Draw Conclusions 5. Report the Findings


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