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Nutrition notes week 2

by: Jessica Martin

Nutrition notes week 2 30423

Marketplace > Health Sciences > 30423 > Nutrition notes week 2
Jessica Martin


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About this Document

The notes from the previous classes are on the first notes I uploaded.
Nutrition and Physical Activity
Class Notes
nutrition, nutrition and physical activity
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Martin on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 30423 at a university taught by Dr.Shah in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
1/21/19  Dietary Guidelines for Americans – to promote health and reduce the risk of chronic disease o Government agencies make these recommendations for all people over the age of 2 (USDA & US DHHS every 5 years) o Healthy eating pattern across the lifespan, maintain appropriate calorie level, maintain healthy body weight, limit added sugars and saturated fats, reduce sodium, support healthy eating (ex. Schools, parents) o Managing Weight – the way to lose weight is to reduce caloric intake and exercise. If you want to maintain, do these things, too. o Physical Activity – different for age groups  Age 18-64 – see slides for guidelines(aerobic 150 min (mod inten), 75 min (vigorously) per week, for additional health benefits (300 min (mod) or 150 (vig), spread out throughout the week, or min time spent in an exercise bout 10 min for benefits, muscle strengthening needs two days to rest)  Age 65+ - there are differences to compensate for older age: (see SLIDES )( – Follow the same guidelines for younger adults – If they cannot meet the guidelines, be as physically activity as possible – Do exercise to maintain or improve balance to reduce risk of falling – Determine their level of physical activity relative to their level of fitness – Those with chronic conditions should understand whether and how their conditions can affect their ability to do regular physical activity  Age 6-17 – see SLIDES • Children and adolescents (6-17 y): – Daily physical activity • 60 min or more of moderate or vigorous physical activity daily. • Vigorous-intensity physical activity at least 3 days a week. – Muscle-strengthening • As part of their 60 or more min of daily physical activity • At least 3 days per week. – Bone-strengthening • As part of their 60 or more min of daily physical activity • At least 3 days of the week. – Participate in physical activities that are age appropriate, enjoyable, and offer variety.  Moderate vs. Vigorous Activity – moderate is compared to brisk walking Moderate PA: Walking briskly (3.5 miles/h), hiking, gardening/yard work, dancing, golfing, cycling (< 10 miles/h), weight training (general light workout), tennis, etc. Vigorous PA: Running/jogging (5 miles/h), cycling (>10 miles/h), swimming (freestyle laps), aerobics, walking very fast (4.5 miles/h), heavy yard work (chopping wood), weight lifting (vigorous effort), basketball (competitive). o Food Components  Sodium intake – Americans tend to be really high; as we age, we tend to become more sodium-sensitive.  Hypertensive, diabetic, kidney disease, have a tendency to be high in sodium.  Saturated Fats – lead to higher blood cholesterol levels  Cholesterol  Trans Fat (hydrogenated fat)  Solid fats and added sugars – butter, lard, fatty meats  13.3 g – saturated fats  45 g – added sugars  Refined Grains – grains with the fiber stripped from them (w/ a lot of added sugars and solid fats)refine have been striped of fiber you want whole  White grains, pastries, cakes, etc. o Foods and Nutrients to Increase  Yellow and Orange fruits – mangoes, oranges (carotenoids)  More colors in fruits and vegetables: dark green  Better Protein sources – lean meats (no red), eggs, skinless poultry, legumes (peas and beans) more fish, etc. (animals have a lot of saturated fat)  Fat-free or low-fat dairymilk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverage  Recommend teenage boys and men consume less protein from red meat/processed meat, due to it’s contribution to cancers and heart disease (NOT ON SLIDES)  Pregnant women – they need more iron and folic acid  Animal foods and supplements are a recommended source of additional iron  Folic acid – dietary folate reduces abnormal neural tube defects  Seafood variety – lower food chain fish  Older individuals (50+) – get more Vitamin B12 (absorbency decreases with time)  Everybody – see slide 6-3!  MyPlate Guidelines – changed/updated every 5 years; promote health and reduce the risk for chronic diseases o Premise (increase) – ½ your plate should be fruits and vegetables (to get nutrients, phytochemicals, antioxidants, carotenoids –yellow etc.), and include VARIETY. Whole grains and lean/skinless meats. As well as dairy. o MyPlate Recommendations (reduce)– slide 7-1. Less sugary drinks (linked to obesity – lots of empty calories), less sodium intake  Daily food plan – 12 different plans (generated from personal information) o Amounts – you must have a certain amount of each food group daily  Fruits – juice is concentrated (lots of sugar)  15g – 1 tablespoon  28g – 1 oz. o Nutrient Contributions of food groups  Grains – clean carbs + fiber o Limitations of MyPlate  Not enough description of figures  Limited info on alcohol  Overemphasis on dairy – USDA supports farmers, which is why they endorse dairy and meat purchase o MyPlate: Physical Activity – see slide!  If you’re physically active, you can increase your caloric intake  FDA Daily Values – compare the nutrient content of foods to your own personal nutrient needs (based on 2000 Kcal diet)4 photos on slides  <1600 kcal/dnutrient dense foods/fortified foods/ supplements  Limitations: photo doesn’t give details (no guidance on Alcohol, overemphasis on dairy-Ca+ intake in milk to prevent osteoporosis, no snacking included, doesn’t show what kids of vegis and fruits) o Sodium and fiber are absolute; NOT dependent on energy intake o Food Label  Serving size – in grams and household measures  Mandatory – servings, serving size, calories, total fat(<30% energy from TF) (2,000*.3=<600kcal/9g=66.7g fat=65g)(<10% energy from SFA 2,000*.1=200/9= 22g =20g), cholesterol, sodium, total carb(60% of energy from CHO 2,000*.6=1200/4=300g CHO), ingredients, etc. (Total fat 7/65*100=11%) (SFA2.5/20*100=13%) photo on slide  TFA>.5 g/serving they don’t have to report it  Food label change – google “New FDA Nutrition Label” – KNOW the DIFFERENCES!!  Health claims – only allowed by the FDA. There are many requirements before this claim can be made.  Study Methodology – there is misleading information out there; study designs help us differentiate. o Hypothesis –“educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon: many are formed from epidemiologic studies (how do disease rates differ by age or population); they are tested in experimental studies o Case-Control Design – an epidemiologic study; the weakest design.  Cases – people with the disease/condition (obesity) of interest  Control – people without (lean people)  The people must be the same size, race, age, etc.  Measure – questionnaire on physical activity IN THE PAST (historical risk factorsdisadvantage because not precise but advantage is easy to administer)  medication, family history, smoking  Advantages/Disadvantages – no cause-and-effect implication. There is an association/correlation/ link/contribution/relationship, but NOT CAUSE!  You can use phrases like “PA is associated with obesity, PA is linked to O, contributed st o Perspective Observational Design – better than the 1 ; an epidemiologic study. Looking at the future for the manifestation of a certain disease(s) (based on a certain risk factor)randomize BEST. Over time o In class example:  Group w/ high, mod, low, sugar intake (ranking L to H)  Assess diet and divide into three groups  Follow them over 10 years to find incidence of diabetes  Measure risk factor prior to assessment  More precise because you measure risk factors before they get the disease  Liked to heart disease, obesity, etc.  Need large Ns so enough power to detect significant difference between groups  You need to wait for the disease to develop (millions $)  You can say “may be linked” because to many other factors could effect o Other example:  People w/different levels of saturated fat intake; follow the groups for a number of years and track the incidents of heart disease that occur.  Advantage – more accurate data collection by recording info before the onset of disease/condition. Disadvantages – must be an extremely large sample size (more power to detect significant differences), and for a long time (latent diseases). No CAUSE-AND-EFFECT relationship!


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