Psychology 202, Week 3 Notes
Psychology 202, Week 3 Notes PSY 202
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 11: Health and Well-Being Questions to Consider: Can psychological factors aﬀect health? How do people cope with stress? What behaviors aﬀect mental and physical health? Can a positive attitude keep us healthy? Can Psychological Factors Aﬀect Health? The biopsychosocial model of health incorporates multiple perspectives for understanding and improving health. Health psychologists utilize the biopsychosocial model in their investigations into what leads to health and well-being Biological factors Genetic predispositions Behavioral Factors Lifestyle, stress, and health beneﬁts Social conditions Cultural inﬂuences, family relationships, and social support Behavior contributes to the leading causes of death The leading cause of death in the U.S. is heart disease. Obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, stress, and personality variables cause this Accidents – another leading cause of death – may be reduced by changing our behaviors, such as wearing seat belts. Critical thinking skill: identifying regression to the mean Placebos can be powerful medicine The placebo eﬀect Believe that you will get better can lead to improved health even if the treatment is inert Functional MRI results indicate that when patients have a positive expectation about a placebo, the neural processes involved are the same ones that are activated in a response to a biologically active treatment. Critical thinking skill: recognizing placebo eﬀects when evaluating treatment claims Stress: Stress, deﬁned as a pattern of behavioral and physiological responses that match or exceed a person’s abilities to respond in a healthy way. Stress can occur as a result of happy events such as getting married (eustress) or negative events such as getting ﬁred (distress) There are sex diﬀerences in responses to stressors: Fight-or-ﬂight response Including increased heart rate, redistribution of the blood supply from skin and digestive organs to muscles and brain, deeper breathing, dilation of pupils, inhibitions of gastric secretions, and an increase in glucose released from liver. Most of the early research on the ﬁght-or-ﬂight response was a conducted on males. For women, the tend-and-befriend response has been proposed as a response to stress: Women respond to stress by protecting and caring for their oﬀspring, as well as by forming alliances with social groups to reduce individual risk. Oxytocin The general adaptation syndrome is a bodily response to stress. Hans Selye identiﬁed the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome: 1. alarm stage 2. resistance stage 3. exhaustion Stress aﬀects health. Immune system: The ﬁeld of psychoneuroimmunology investigates how stress impacts the immune system In research, more desirable events experienced by subjects lead to more antibodies being produced. Stress has psychological components. Excessive or long-term stress can: Negatively impact internal organs Interfere with the neural processes needed to create long-lasting memories Cause damage to neurons in the hippocampus (less likely to remember things) Overwhelming evidence indicates that chronic stress, especially psychosocial stress, is associated with the initiation and progression of a wide variety of diseases, from cancer to AIDS to cardiac disease. Many people cope with stress by engaging in damaging behavior. Coping: Coping is a process: To deal eﬀectively with stressors, we use cognitive appraisals that link feelings with thoughts. Lazarus’ two-part cognitive appraisal process: Primary appraisals: we decide whether stimuli are stressful, benign, or Secondary appraisals: involve feelings related to dealing with the stressor or the stress it produces Types of coping: Emotion-focused coping Person tries to prevent an emotional response Avoidance, minimizing the problem, eating, drinking, so on Problem-focused strategies Involve taking direct steps to solve the problem Generating solutions, weighing costs and beneﬁts Tend to be used more when the stressor is perceived as controllable Individual Diﬀerences in Coping People diﬀer widely in the perceptions of how stressful life events are Stress resistant people are capable of adapting to life changes by being events constructively “Hardiness” has three components: commitment, challenge, and control Stress-resilient people show greater emotional ﬂexibility and recover from threats more quickly that do those low in resilience Some researchers believe that people can learn to come more resilient. Family-Focused Intervention and Autonomy One of the most stressful events in life is dealing with illness or pain Research shows that including family members in a treatment plan is often not eﬀective because the patients feel as though family members are controlling their life Family interventions can be beneﬁcial if family members promote the patient’s autonomy Behaviors and Health: What behaviors aﬀect mental and physical health? Exercise, smoking, obesity, etc. Before the twentieth century, most people died from infections and from diseases transmitted person to person. Today, all of the leading causes of death are at least partially outcomes of lifestyle. Why the increase in obesity? Change in serving size
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