Intro to Nutrition Ch. 1
Intro to Nutrition Ch. 1 FCS 140
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FCS 140 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Amanda Conlon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Child and Family Studies at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Introduction to Nutrition Ch. 1 1.1 Food Choices and Nutrient Intake ● Nutrient- a substance in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates body processes ● Essential Nutrien: can’t be made by the body in sufficient quantities to maintain body functions or it can’t be made by the body ● Calorie- the amount of energy provided by food ● Fortificatio- the addition of nutrients to foods (it was created to help prevent nutrient deficiencies) ● Phytochemical- a substance found in plant foods that doesn’t contain essential nutrients, but has health benefits ○ Garlic, broccoli, and onions provide phytochemicals that help protect us forms of cancer by triggering the body’s natural defenses ○ Yellow-orange fruits and vegetables contain phytochemicals that may prevent oxygen from damaging cells ○ Purple grapes, berries, and onions contain flavonoids that prevent oxygen damage and could reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease ● Functional Foods- foods that contain health promoting properties that exceeds basic nutritional functions; unmodified whole foods (ex: Broccoli, fish, etc.) ○ Designer Foods - modified foods (ex: water with added vitamins, orange juice with added calcium, etc.) ○ Nutraceutical - food or supplements that deliver a health benefit 1.2 Nutrients and Their Functions ● Classes of Nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids (fats), proteins, water, vitamins, minerals ● Macronutrients- nutrients that are needed in large amounts (carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and water) ● Micronutrients- nutrients that are needed in small amounts (vitamins and minerals) ● Organic Compound - a substance that consists of carbon bonded to hydrogen; “alive” (ex: vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, lipids) ● Nutrients that provide calories to the body energy yielding nutrients ● Carbohydrates- a category of nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fibers ○ fiber - can’t be broken down by human digestive enzymes ● Lipids- a category of nutrients, most can’t dissolve in water (they are commonly called fats) ○ Cholesterol - found in both the diet and the body, high blood levels will increase the risk of heart disease ○ Saturated Fat - most sufficient in solid animal fats and it is correlated with an increase of heart disease ○ Unsaturated Fat - most sufficient in plant oils and it is correlated with a decreased risk of heart disease 1.3 Nutrition in Health and Disease ● Both diet and genes affect your risk of diseases ● Malnutrition- a condition where someone is receiving either not enough or too much energy (calories) or nutrients ○ Undernutrition - occurs when the body isn’t receiving the calories or nutrients the body needs (can cause scurry, osteoporosis, and other diseases) ○ Overnutrition - occurs when the body receives more calories or nutrients than what the body needs (can cause nutrient toxicities that could lead to things like liver failure or nerve damage) ● Four of the top ten deaths in the U.S. are related to nutrition ● Nutritional Genomics- the study of how our genes affect the effects of nutrients or other food components on health and how nutrients change the activity of our genes ○ Nutrigenics - the effect genes have on how their diet affects their health ○ Nutrigenomics - the effect nutrients and other food aspects has on gene activity 1.4 Choosing a Healthy Diet ● Variety, balance, and moderation are important in having a healthy diet ● Variety- eating a variety of foods that are in different food groups ○ If you don’t use variety you could have too much of one nutrient (ex: vitamin C) and you won’t have other nutrients that your body needs (ex: vitamin A, iron) ● Balance- making sure you are balancing all the bad food you are consuming with good food (ex: if you have a brownie for a snack then have fruit for dessert) ● Moderation- not having too many calories, fats, sugars, salt, etc. 1.5 Evaluation Nutrition Info ● The science of nutrition is constantly evolving ● Scientific Method- an approach that allows new knowledge to evolve so it can be corrected and updated ○ In nutrition, the scientific method is used to update the world about nutrition and to use it to better our lives ● Hypothesis- reasoning for why an event occurred and using that explanation to conduct an experiment ● Theory- formal reasoning of an observed phenomenon after the hypothesis has been proven correct multiple times ● Control Group- a group in an experiment that is used as a comparison ● Experimental Group- a group in an experiment that undergoes what is being tested ● Epidemiology- the study of health and disease trends and patterns in populations ○ Experimental Studies: clinical trials, animal studies, biochemistry and molecular biology ● Quantified - measurable data (ex: weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, etc.) ○ testimonials aren’t always reliable so they shouldn’t be used to evaluate a product, quantified data should be used
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