Musicology Semester Notes
Popular in Musicology of Western Culture
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
SOC 407 001
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
13309 - PLS 103 - 02
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Evans on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Musicology 110 at a university taught by Keith Brown in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.
Reviews for Musicology Semester Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/22/16
Musicology 08/27/2015 ▯ Timbre—the color of the sound How you can tell the difference between guitar and piano playing the same note (same with woman and man’s voice) What we like or don’t like ▯ First test will have 10 pieces (songs ▯ Tests: Listening examples are matching (playing important parts of songs) Multiple choice Short answer Discussion questions NOT a lot of true/false ▯ Music is imitating speech ▯ Pitch & Rhythm = melody ▯ Harmony ▯ Phrases are combined with pitches ▯ Describes melody: Conjunct melody—smooth Star Spangled Banner is disjunct ▯ Interval—distance between one time and another ▯ Melodies are made of different intervals ▯ Octave—same pitch name but different range/pitch 12 ½ steps ▯ Chromatic scale—start with one note and work way up/down ▯ Major/Minor scale—make up melody ▯ Conjunct and Disjunct ▯ Polyrhythm—accent pulsation is a big part Syncopation (upsetting the rhythm-imply other rhythms) ▯ Meter—most songs in 4/4 ▯ The division of the measer Where there are accents ▯ The emphasis on 2 & 4 is back beat ▯ 1 & 3 are down beats ▯ ▯ piano p or ppp (super soft) ▯ mezzo forte ▯ forte F or FFF (super low) ▯ ▯ piano is originally named piano forte ▯ ▯ crescendo < slow to fast quiet to loud ▯ ritardando slow down tempo ▯ harmony ▯ chord—3+ pitches ▯ simple chord—1 (root) 3 & 5 add color tones on 7 and more th ▯ intonation—being very close ▯ major chord—happy sound ▯ minor chord—high range but still darker ▯ diminished chord—minor thirds, mystery, cloudy ▯ ▯ 8/26/15 ▯ 1. Monophonic texture—one melody (all on same pitch, harmony, melody) ▯ 2. Polyphonic texture—more than one ▯ 3. Homophonic texture—accompaniment ▯ ▯ heterphonic texture—melody line and monophonic texture with homophonic layer; variation in melody ▯ ▯ SONG FORM ▯ Intro-starts in ½ AABC AABC DDD BC A 8888 88 ½ ½ 6+2 bars Song: Suit and Tie by Justin Timberlake ▯ Mozart Form: ABA (binary) ▯ ▯ Instruments Chordophone o Any instrument that has a string (with tension) that is struck o Piano, guitar, mandolin, banjo, harp o Tighten or loosed string to vibrate at different frequency (higher or lower) Aerophone o Voice, horn, bag pipe, pipe organ o Any instrument where air is pushed through Membranophone o Drum instruments o Snare, base, bongo o Tightening controls high/low pitch Idiophone o Sounds made by instrument itself o Cymbal, bells, wood blocks, clapping spoons Computophone o Electronics determine sounds o Something that makes the sound (not iphone or mp3 player) o Keyboard and computer Vocabulary Chanson-French song (secular or sacred) Motet-highly varied choral music composition (normally sacred) Madrigal-secular vocal composition (secular motet)(word painting) Cantata-vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment typically in several movements Monody-single melody with instrumental accompaniment Opera-drama that is sung ▯ Gregorian chant on test 1 Melisma: one syllable being sung in different notes ▯ Most music historians see the polyphonic textures invention as the most important development in music ▯ Machaut-one of the first greatest composers My end is my beginning and my beginning is my end Word painting: madrigal ▯ English madrigal: Fair Phyllis by John Farmer on test 1 ▯ ▯ 9/2/15 ▯ Discussion question on Bach ▯ ▯ Josquin Desprez 1450-1521 ▯ Giovanni Peirluigi da Palestrina 1525-1594 ▯ ▯ Motet-vocal compositions; a lot more sections than a madrigal ▯ “Gloria, from Pope Marcellus Mass” Palestrina, less flowy, clear ▯ Renaissance “Rebirth” Biggest invention: Gutenberg’s printing press Bottled beer Chocolate Coffee Plague ▯ *Not a lot of questions about the time period but know that the arts are a representation of the culture ▯ ▯ sacred music, certain function definite beauty ▯ ▯ Baroque Era-named after the type of jewelry 1600-1750 ▯ Equal Tempering (Temperament)- how you fix something; divide the octave and make everything slightly wrong, but equally wrong. ▯ ▯ Development of opera- telling a story through song, came out of Baroque Era, “best think out of Baroque” (bach, greatest composer ever, never wrote an opera) ▯ ▯ Five clear characteristics of Baroque Era Texture is polyphonic Melody is unheard/unfolds in symmetrical phrases (in 4 measures each) Two levels of dynamics; terrace (from one level to next); soft to loud Driving rhythm Two contrasting themes ▯ ▯ Third movement of second concerto by Bach possible extra credit for knowing on listening text on the recording soft and loud are more noticeable ▯ ▯ Cello suite- by Bach, very famous, everyone plays it ▯ Toccata in few (in D minor) Dracula song, Halloween creepy ▯ Air on a G-string-copied in some ways for other music ▯ From St. Matthew passion- “direct rip off” ▯ Always hear Bach in multiple ways Born in 1685 Died in 1750 (probably why they say that’s the era ended) Two wives o First was cousin, 9 children; Maria Barba o Second wife had 11, 9-10 survived (was his student); Anna Magnolia o Had total of 20 children, raised 10 ▯ Well tempered clever (harpsichord; piano type)- book one is 24 pieces, book 2 is 24; total 48; collection of pieces ▯ ▯ Bach: Best known as organist, organ builder, teacher All musicians knew of him Died broke Looked up to his brothers Practically invented nothing; solidifies other techniques ▯ BWV- Book Work Volume ▯ ▯ Bach video: Very polyphonic Same melody, return to it (ritranella) Call and answer (first movement) standing musicians in orchestra differenct instruments (French-horn an Oboe like) Meter clearly in 3 ▯ ▯ Fugue: Piece of music where entire composition is centered around one theme Important on start Subject (different voice fugues) Active composition Bach’s beer bottles ▯ ▯ *Can do bullet points for Bach questions know pieces, birth and death dates, what things he did that was important 50-60 cantatas each year ▯ ▯ 9/9/15 ▯ Monody ▯ Opera- drama that is sung Two types of songs in opera: o aria-high emotion o recitative- moving story ahead Libretto- the story of the opera Librettist- writer ▯ Considered to be one of the most important developments during the Baroque Era ▯ ▯ Suite in D Major a collection of various pieces ▯ Handel is probably best known for oritio- opera for church (sacred) ▯ ▯ Maybe short discussion question on Handel ▯ ▯ Antonio Vivaldi “The Red Priest” Wanted to be priest Teacher at a school for orphan girls ▯ Four seasons is a concerto solo instrument with accompaniment ▯ ▯ Terms: 10 short answer (5-6) describe and have example for monophonic, homophonic, polyphonic ▯ ▯ Instruments around the world ▯ ▯ Characteristics of Baroque and Renaissance Driving rhythm, terrace dynamicsHallelujah chorus example ▯ ▯ Everything is over class material, not book ▯ Listening pieces: identify ▯ Discussion question on Bach 16-20 points Bullet facts or however Music pieces, effects on music, extra credit can be obtained with interesting facts or book facts Possibly a question about Handle Study Music ▯ ▯ Listening selections for Test I ▯ ▯ ▯ Vocal only: ▯ Hildegard of Bingen: Alleluia, O virga mediatrix ▯ Machaut: Ma fin est mon commencement ▯ Farmer: Fair Phyllis ▯ Josquin: Ave Maria ▯ Palestrina: Gloria, from Pope Marcellus Mass ▯ ▯ Single voice with small orchestra: ▯ Purcell: Dido and Aeneas Act III ▯ ▯ Vocal choir and orchestra. ▯ Bach: Cantata No.140 ▯ Handel: Messiah ▯ ▯ Instrumental: ▯ Handel: Water Music, Suite in D Major ▯ Vivaldi: Spring from The Four Seasons ▯ ▯ Organ: ▯ Bach: Contrapunctus I ▯ Symphony Sonata (basically) Multi movement with no pistoral ▯ Sonata allegro form/1 movement form Normally first song is fast still company symphonies Still composing symphonies (not dead and gone) Most follow main guidelines and form ▯ Know how to map this out for sure: ▯ ▯ Exposition A Establish characters ▯ Development B Save the world ▯ Recapitulation (recap) A Peace restored ▯ ▯ (Same, but some differences) ▯ ▯ Exposition A ▯ Theme 1 – home key To go from Theme 1 to Theme 2 **Bridge** ▯ Theme 2 – opposing/different key Different key ▯ Closing theme ▯ ▯ **Normally develop theme 1 or 2 (Mozart did Bridge one) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Recap A ▯ Theme 1 Home **Bridge** ▯ Theme 2 Home key ▯ Closing ▯ Coda (tail very clear ending) ▯ ▯ Theme 1 G minor ▯ Theme 2 B flat minor ▯ *Test question to diagram the symphony ▯ ▯ 9/23/15 ▯ Describe a classic Stood the test of time Remember that… (something everyone knows or recognizes) ▯ ▯ Era of classical music/time period Very simple/simplicity 1750-1825 reigns supreme in most people’s mind ▯ ▯ Characteristics (TEST QUESTION) ▯ 1) Clarity of form, melody and harmony ▯ 2) More variation in dynamics more expression ▯ 3) Music of Bach becomes out of style not just Bach, all of Baroque ▯ 4) Piano becomes most important keyboard instrument replacing harpsichord and organ ▯ 5) More public concerts becomes the norm – musicians become more like rock stars, kind of ▯ ▯ Joseph Hayden 1732 – 1809 Child that became of age when switch from Baroque to Classic began At 29 years hired Esterhaugy (well-known) family (Chief music director of palace) Musical servant With family 30+ place years 102 symphonies Family were patrons – Employers Master craft because he could have employees play it for him Most famous is “Farewell Symphony” 94 symphony th ▯ ▯ String quartet 2 violins 1 Viola Cello ▯ Hayden was first master at this Symphony 76 ▯ ▯ Symphony 100 Second movement The Militare? ▯ ▯ Melodies always have singing/lyrical quality to them ▯ ▯ After 30 years, family allowed him to travel London symphonies (last 12 – layer orchestra and rooms) Big fan of Mozart o “This young man will make a big noise in the world” ▯ The big two test questions will be Mozart and Beethoven ▯ ▯ Mozart Born a child genius Short life (~35 years) 1756 – 1791 No one know what killed him o Buried in mass grave o Working on requiem for the dead (not finished) o “The Magic Flute” free masons killed him (poison) Composing music at age 5 12 years old attended a performance of papal choice (secretive music) copied all 9 segments that night Sickly kid b/c he traveled around (theory of death) In love with wife’s sister Made a lot of money and spent it like crazy Crazy life – talented sister By the time he was teenager wrote a lot o In 20s wrote operas o Over 600 pieces Dutch physicist who tried to put pieces of music in order – Kershal # (k listing) o Give #, so can tell when he wrote it o Loved writing operas “A little night music” o very familiar beginning o Know third movement Minuet in trio o In 3 movement o 3 people play o normally ¾ or 4/4 ▯ Don Jaovani – know Mozart opera (probably extra credit) ▯ ▯ 9/30/15 ▯ ▯ Exposition Theme 1 Bridge Theme 2 Closing theme ▯ ▯ On repeat Theme 1 (piano theme) ▯ Theme 2 ▯ Etc. ▯ ▯ Development ▯ ▯ Recapitulation Theme 1 o Piano Theme 2 ▯ ▯ Cadenza – place in concerto where the soloist improvised ▯ ▯ Mozart’s favorite instrument = piano ▯ ▯ K. 453 = concerto 17 (will be on test) ▯ ▯ Piano was still relatively new at time 88 pitches (keys) 23 concerto is most famous other concertos: violin, cello ▯ ▯ Discussion question on Mozart and Beethoven ▯ ▯ Most famous symphony: Beethoven’s 5 th Went deaf: from syphilis Level of lead in his body made him deaf and died o Drinking wine that was tainted Beat as a kid Hearing loss, abuse, hearbreak Germany (town was Bonn) Abusive music lessons Showed promise by age 5 Loner Beethoven played for Mozart when he was 16 Became head of household (in charge of father and 2 brothers) Wrote pieces that were too difficult to play During French Revolution time o Went back to study w/ Mozart, but had to study with Hayden instead Finally got attention from women o Wrote moonlight sonata for student he fell in love with started loosing hearing in late 20s temper got worse, wild mood swings Fell in love with his friend’s wife (she was bed ridden) Gives up on ever having a wife and children o After the letter to his immortal lover a musical prodigy is born could have been his (a kid born out of wedlock) Wrote 9 symphony – at premier he could not hear applause 1826 nephew tried to kill himself March 22 priest gave him last rights – 5 days later big storm came through – raised his fist and died Gave everything to nephew Carl Made death mask and cut all his hair Famous in his time ▯ ▯ Child of Classic Era – Transition to romantic period (1825 start) 1790 – 1802 o Keyboard and chamber music o 1 and 2 ndsymphonies o starts not hearing well 1802 – 1818 o heroic phase – extremely productive o opera (only) o 6 symphonies 4 concertos o deafness causes him not to perform 1820 – 1827 o wished to have family – after death of brother adopted nephew Carl o Write’s 9 symphony o 20,000 people attended funeral o died from plursay (stomach pains) ▯ ▯ Made most money on sheet music ▯ ▯ 5 symphony is best known (only know first movement on test) odd ones have more emphasis… so they say WWII – victory symphony (Morris code …- = V) Development section is longer than normal for time period ▯ Beethoven felt close with nature ▯ ▯ 10/7/15 ▯ ▯ Rubato – (know for test) 1825 Romanic Era – 1900 ▯ Romantic Era was about fairy-like whimsical things ▯ Night on Ball mountain ▯ ▯ Chopin Career centered around the piano At 21 moved to Paris Girlfriend’s name was George Sand (pen name) Loved playing in homes not so much auditoriums ▯ Mazurka – doesn’t sound that pretty – changes tempo a ot Rubenstein’s version of Chopin on the hard song ▯ ▯ Franz Schubart “My music which is a product of my talent is also a product of my misery” Manic depression 30 years old when died wrote Leider – Art songs (wrote) 900 total works setting lyrics to music 8 symphonies (part of 9) Elfking ▯ ▯ Describe and give an example Music nationalism – use patriotic songs in the big picture Programic music – music that depicts a story, place (instrumental event, person) Extra credit: Overture of 1812 music nationalism Popularity Because overture were more famous New type of entertainment Either nationalistic or programic (or both) ▯ Sym Fantasique (Berlioz) programic Liked to try new things Believed to be the creator of the modern orchestra (made more effects) Not a virtuoso – guitar was main instrument This woman in his dream (he killed her now he is going to be killed) Connective “tissue” fixed idea ▯ Grieg – insodental but also programic Helps create a mood (function but not telling a story) Wedding March ▯ ▯ 10/14/15 ▯ ▯ Edward Grieg 1843 – 1907 ▯ Johannes Brahms 1833 – 1897 ▯ Richard Wagner 1813 – 1883 ▯ Peter Tchaikovsky 1840 – 1893 ▯ ▯ Short essay question ▯ ▯ Johannes Brahms wrote Lullaby in Romantic period Never married Did not write a symphony until he was in his 40s Music we need to know is from third symphony o ABA structure o Melody is haunting/beautiful o ¾ o no percussion, only brass was French horn o 4 movement of the 7 movement piece is the most revered piece (practically ever) ▯ Tchaikovsky Overture of 1812 Madam von… paid him to write music – but they never met Great knack for melody and telling story through music The Nutcracker Richard Wagner is like the train wreck you can’t look away from Jesus, Napolene, Wagner (# biographies) Great gift for writing for love, nature, the world Music was centered around opera ▯ * Leitmotif Orchestra was like another character 4 different operas performed over 4 days (15 hours) Met a young (gay) king, built him a huge Operahouse, paid to keep him a float Primarily self taught (on how to compose) ▯ ▯ Test: Two discussion questions – Beethoven and Mozart List of composers covered to write 6 points about 1 Not as many terms as last time (4-5) Difference in classic era and romantic (5 points) o Melodies are longer, more expression of dynamics 10-15 MC Couple of T/F 2 discussion and Sonata allegro form (be able to diagram – 4 points) o Exposition o Development o Recap 14 songs ▯ Claude Debussy 1862-1918 Began to explore scales (chromatic and others) ▯ ▯ Arnold Schoenberg 1874-1951 ▯ Alban Berg 1885-1935 ▯ Igor Straninsky 1882-1971 ▯ ▯ The Firebird 1910 ▯ Petrushka 1911 ▯ The Rite of Spring 1913 ▯ ▯ Bella Bartok 1881-1945 ▯ Charles Ives 1874-1959 ▯ Aaron Copland 1900-1990 ▯ ▯ Polyrhythm ▯ Polyharmony/Polytonality ▯ Atonality – no tone ▯ Serial/12 tone ▯ ▯ Neoclassicism – take something old an revamp it tone rogue music/serialized ▯ ▯ Igor Stravinsky – very influential 3 ballets riot in opera room, now most important ballet ▯ ▯ Picasso and his periods – Stravinsky also had periods Left Russia and spent most of his life in the United States (died here) The Rite of Spring – creepy Indian ballet ▯ ▯ Bartok – ethnomusicologist (if test question will be about that his music has melodies from other sources) Atonality, but not 12 tone th 4 movement of concerto for orchestra Themes – woodwinds, strings, clarinets Leukemia and dying Pieces were famous – after death ▯ ▯ Only try indigenous music to America would be jazz ▯ ▯ Charles Ives (predates Stravinsky) American born Most revolutionary From New England (Hawthorn, Thorough time period) Singing slightly off key Wrote a piece of music where the orchestra was split playing two different songs “War is Hell” No one wanted to play his music Head of Insurance company Pulitzer prize at 60 something (bitter old man) The old country band march (basically a melting pot melody) ▯ ▯ Copland Hear beauty and grace – polyharmonic, not so much crushing everything together Ballets: Rodeo, Billy the Kid, Appalachian Spring (opening and scene 7 old shaker hymn) 20 century classical music discussion question American Musical Theater – 40 points on test There is a worksheet he gave us Lynard Byrnstein – West Side Story Star Crossed Lovers (Romeo and Juilet) Tonight Mambo ▯ Discussion question: The use of reprise – first they sing it to each other then the gangs make it a fight song ▯ ▯ George Gershwin Takes well known songs and change the forms Songs were very effective for jazz songs Operatic version of song “summertime” o Others are America in Paris and Rhapsody in Blue Personalize with jazz Billy Holiday ▯ ▯ American Jazz – Discussion question on test jazz from US ▯ Jazz musicians Nora Jones Louis Armstrong Miles Davis Billy Holiday Bessy Jones ▯ Formed in New Orleans Melting pot of cultures city, very diverse Port city Dutch, Caribbean, African American (at once a slave port) Owned by Spaniards, French and US Most of the people who started jazz were second or third generation (not slaves straight from Africa) 70 rpm record 1917 (first jazz records) Many composers played off the cuff ▯ Musical influences Blues Ragtime Classical Church Brass Bands Marching Bands African Rhythms ▯ Whorehouse music “Came from the Brothel of New Orleans” ▯ Scott Joplin “King of Ragtime” o Composed not emprovised Piano roll ▯ Jazz: improvisation and swing Consistent tempo, certain feeling ▯ Jellyroll Morton played Scott Joplin’s song Sounded more 4/4 – began to swing ▯ Brass bands – performed at weddings, funerals etc. Play the same song all the way to the cemetery (began to embellish certain parts of the song) Came back and began to celebrate ▯ Louis Armstrong 1901 claimed to be born July 4, 1900 Mother was prostitute – not sure about father Raised in poverty Great architect of new music Performance style, charismatic, great trumpet player Duality: music playing and singing To many people America’s fist great jazz star In the 60s had pop hit (Hello Dolly) o 1964 also famous The Beatles Series of records: Hot 5 and Hot 7 (number of people in the band) Artist that was an entertainer and vice versa Story about his wife got their house fixed and painted then he did it for the entire neighborhood ▯ Early Jazz 1917-1930 ▯ Swing Era 1930s -1940s Stock market crash (entertainment was an escape from real life) ▯ Satchmo (Favorite – called himself that) ▯ Dipper mouth ▯ Satchelmouth ▯ Pops ▯ ▯ Instrumentation Early Jazz o Trumpet o Clarinet o Trombone o Piano o Bass o Drums o Guitar or Banjo ▯ (More Sonic Power) Swing Era o Big Band 4 Trumpets 4 Trombones 5 Saxophones Piano Bass Drums Guitar ▯ ▯ Arrangements: mean the songs will be similar the next night More predictability Most popular time period ▯ Driving innovation of art (especially in music, especially jazz and rock) YOUTH Marketing ▯ Music has been about dancing ▯ ▯ Swing Era was most popular because the music was more predictable and dancing ▯ ▯ “Duke Ellington” – Edward Ellington 1899-1974 Called him Duke because he was regal Duke to Swing :: Mozart to classical ▯ ▯ Reflects the cultural standing of America One of if not the best composer from America 3 minute songs Most creative music this country has produced “Take the A Train” he didn’t write it, but it became his theme song and played it every night A A B A (3x) American song form All kinds of songs are written in this form o 8 8 8 8 = 32 Wrote over 2,000 songs Workaholic ▯ ▯ Melody ▯ Solos ▯ Melody ▯ ▯ 12 bar blues – 12 measures one of the most common structures ▯ ▯ Billy Holiday – how you sing is more important than the lyrics Female singer – looked up to Louis Armstrong Personalize the music Structure emprovising ▯ Most Jazz structures are AABA 32 Or 12 bar ▯ ▯ R&B Grew out of jazz but not exactly jazz (Rhythm and Blues) When jazz went left they took it right to be R&B Made it more about the feel not so much being sophisticated ▯ ▯ Early – Swing – Bebop – Cool – Hardbop – Avant Grande – Post Hard Pop – Jazz/Rock Fusion ▯ ▯ R&B Louis Jordan Ray Charles Ray Milton ▯ + Soul Marvin Gay Stevie Wonder Otis Redding Wilson Picket James Brown ▯ ▯ R&B Cities Detroit Memphis Muscle Shoals, AL ▯ ▯ After WWII – Tried to change music ▯ ▯ Aleatoric – Latin for dice music ▯ ▯ Post Modernism John Kay – take an instrument and make sound using it in a new way ▯ ▯ Minimalism – music structure has phases Steve Reich – Big Ears (in Knoxville) Electronic counterpoint ▯ Jennifer Higdon From Brooklyn Maryville TN “Blue Cathedral” ▯ ▯ Source Music ▯ Underscore Music ▯ ▯ John Williams – Star Wars ▯ Farewell – Crouching Tiger ▯ ▯ Final Exam Review – Extra night December 2 6:30 – 7:30 Listening part All discussion o 4 or 5 discussion questions (none about specific composers) o short answer (very little) Stuff like post modernism American Musical Theatre Question – Talk about more than one musical
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'