JSIS 201 Week 3 Notes
JSIS 201 Week 3 Notes JSIS 201
Popular in The Making of the 21st Century
Popular in International Studies
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 201 at University of Washington taught by Bachman, David in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see The Making of the 21st Century in International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Continuation from Friday’s Lecture • Fear of population decline (eugenicist thought) o Population growth was slowly --> fewer French and German o Fear that the whole nation would disappear thus, the need to do something drastic o Eugenics o Providing incentives and security to family in order to save the nation The Right or the Radical Right as the response • Italy 1922 (democrats side with property holders to prevent land reform, turn to Benito Mussolini and his fascist movement to bring order to Italy). o Seizure of land property that threatened land owners and upset the middle class. o The fascist wore black shirts and marched like a military o Mussolini becomes the prime minister of Italy and he promises to be order to Italy • Germany in 1930. Nazis as second largest party, Communists as number 3 --> coalition government was nearly impossible. Hitler came to power in 1933. o The Nazis party had the second largest platform of support. Why the Right? • The promise to restore pride (Germany --> scapegoat) • Fear of mass movements against property • How to break down divisions and bring a nation together: appeals to break down divisions ----> advocacy of corporatist structures (effective protection of capital, exploitation of workers, peasants). • Fascism as response to problems of mass politics, industrialization, and s ocial order (so too communism). Liberal democracy responded poorly to these same problems, in the 20s and 30s. • Ideologies to fascism and communism were supposed to Provides "answer" to period of great change and uncertainty. • More on how all the above exacerbated by the Depression on next time. The Depression and the Challenges to Liberal Democratic Capitalism: I Fascism Wednesday, January 20, 2016 2:55 PM The Depression, 1929-1939 • The Modern International System at Lowest Ebb • Collapse of Demand in Deve loped Economics • High Unemployment, Economic Decline, Slow Economic Revival (different patterns in different states) • Huge decline in international trade, capital flows What caused the Depression? • War debt issues o Germany had to make payments from their res ponsibility of WWI. o On that basis, the French and British used that as collateral to keep borrowing from the United States. o But, Germany couldn't repay, they went through hyperinflation o All of this made Germany very weak. o Germany couldn't pay, meaning the British and French couldn't pay thus putting a large challenge on US banks • No Regulators on stocks and bonds, speculation • The British attempt to return to the gold standard • Weaknesses in all European Economies • Surplus productive capacity in the US and hig h tariffs o The US could produce more than it could consume o The US was trying to export its way through high tariffs o Excess capacity: if everything went out on the market, there would be too much there. Why did it last so long? • Trade protectionism o The US increased its tariffs during the Depression • This means the US won't except a lot of imports o Imperial preference system: if there were imports from a foreign country, the US was blocked out of the imports and they weren't given preference on the imp orts o No stimulus of demand when this is taking place • Economic Orthodoxy • Panic/Psychology o People panic when there's such a sharp decline in the economy Consequences • World War II o Aggressive foreign policies o German attempts to get people back to work throug h various strategies • Ideas that Challenged Economic Orthodoxy • Rise of Alternative Economic Models • Led to the further decline of global democracy Challengers to Capitalism: Elements • As ideologies (way of seeing and analyzing the world, a desired future condition or state, and pathways to get there) • The realm of ideas • As social movement • The realm of social and political processes • As actually exiting regimes • The realm of governance Challengers to Capitalism I: F ascism • Ideology of the right • Mass movement, highly nationalist, emphasized the glory of the nation • It was corporatist • Anti-liberal, anti-socialist, anti-democratic • Political party attached to movement; paramilitary units associated with the movement; extra-legal tactics; censorship and propaganda; totalitarian aspirations; an enemy or target for what held back the greatness of the nation The Fascist Right vs. Traditional Right • Traditional Right o Relies on old political order (the wealthy, church hierarchy, aristocracy, monarchy, military officer corps, etc.) o Wants to suppress popular movements, politics o Conservative in the sense that it doesn't want major changes in society and politics (and maybe economics) Why Fascism? • Dissatisfaction with WWI outcomes o Germans were blamed for the war, they lost territory, they were paying tariffs • Active communist movements; fear by the right and center of the left • Dislocation - economic, social, demographic o Population shifts and loss • Lack of political will, lack of alter natives On the Importance and Arbitrariness of Definitions • Was Japan fascist? o Highly nationalistic o Pursued corporatist strategies o Anti-liberal, anti-democratic o Censorship in propaganda o There was an enemy o No mass movement or political movement o No charismatic leadership What was Fascist rule in practice? • Militaristic, expansionist, high risk of foreign policy • Domestic purges o Undesirable citizens or groups who were removed from society • Expansionary economic policies, large state role, especially in military industrial activity o They ran budget deficits o They subsides certain goods, particularly military products o Society is militarized • Retention of private property of core group o There's some protection of privat e property • "Totalitarian" o The most important identification an individual could have is with the state. • There's a denial of the sense of privacy • Suppression of wages and unions o Exploited relationship between labor and capital • The "big lie" o If you repeat a lie enough times people will start to believe it. • "Corporatism" o A combination of labor and capital working together Major Fascist Movements • In power in Italy, 1922, Germany 1933 • Major role in Spain (after 1936), Rumania • Lesser impacts in China, England • Not Japan Challengers to Capitalism: Communism/Socialism Social Democracy Friday, January 22, 2016 2:53 PM Communism • As an ideology o Marx o "Revisionism" o Lenin and the organizational turn o The driving forces in society came from actual existing factors • Russian Marxist-Leninism o Anti-liberal, anti-democratic, extremely anti -capitalist, universalistic, violent, guided mass movement o Leninist Party --> a professional revolutionary organization, conspiratorial in nature, made up of intellectuals and others who truly understood Marxism • As a movement in Russia o Alliance between small number of intellectuals and workers in major cities o Not very successful prior to 1917 • As actually existing regime during "high Stalinism" 1929 -1953 o Socialism in one country o Revolution from above country • As he consolidates power, he launches a socialism revolution from above • Transferred the wealth from the countryside to urban areas o State planning • The market wouldn't decided good allocation. Planners would decide how much of a good were needed to produce. • They drew up an input output analysis and the market was removed from the whole process o Cultural revolution • Creating a new class of worker intellectuals o Stalin brings socialism and nationalism together High Stalinism • Political system o Communist party dictatorship o Democratic centralism • In practice: the people at the top would chose the people immediately below them. o Nomenklatura system o Purges/terror o Institutionalized paranoia o Information control o Absolute power in Stalin's hands
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