COMM 415 1/19 & 1/21 Notes
COMM 415 1/19 & 1/21 Notes COMM 415
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Cracchiolo on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 415 at University of Arizona taught by Chris Segrin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
COMM 415 Nonverbal 1/22/16 6:49 PM 1/19 Categories of NV behavior, distinctions and history: I. Given vs. given off behaviors • Given: purposive and intentional; under control of actor o Talk • Given off: not purposive or intentional; not under control of the sender o Nervous gestures- unaware o Can learn a lot about someone by given off behaviors- not masked II. Aspects of meaning in NV behavior • Intention(encoding): what are people’s intentions when they emit this behavior? • Perception/interpretation (decoding) how do receivers of this behavior interpret it? • Interactive: are there behaviors that have a reliable behavioral effect on others? o Contagious smiling, yawning, adjusting space • Shared encoding-decoding: are there behaviors whose meaning senders are receivers consistently agree on? o Thumbs up: generally accepted one meaning III. Usage of nv comm behaviors • External conditions(context) o Touch- touching hips in a nightclub vs. at work • Relationship to the verbal o Sarcasm- tone of voice • Awareness- are you aware of what you are doing? o Ex: facial expression • Intent- are you doing behavior on purpose? • Feedback- external feedback- feedback from other people o Commenting on facial expressions vs. hand gestures • Type of info conveyed- what does behavior tell us? o 4 types of info conveyed § 1. idiosyncratic: usage and meaning is peculiar to the individual. Hard decode unless you know the person really well- mannerisms § 2. informative: shared encoding and decoding- all agree what they mean. Traffic police- ‘stop’ hand signal, reff- touchdown § 3. Communicative: enacted with clear conscious intention to convey a message- specific intention § 4. Interactive: influence or modify another person’s behavior- invading space= step back. Reciprocated touching in a relationship § **Can be overlaps in these 4 types Origins/Sources of Behavior • Innate neurological mechanisms- born to engage in nonverbal behavior- smile, flinch, • Species constant experiences- response to environment- posture, eat with hands, • Learning and socialization- taught behaviors/symbols- ‘okay’ hand signal Coding of nv behavior • Arbitrary: no intrinsic meaning in behavior; meaning happens by convention • Iconic/metaphoric: preserve SOME aspects of the referent, do not need verbal to be understood- ‘call me’ hand signal, symbolizing hand gun • Intrinsic: the act IS a case of the thing that it is signifying- behavior is case of what it represents 5 categories of NV behavior • 1. emblems- function like words- shaking head= no, ‘stop’ ‘touchdown’ • 2. illustrators- illustrate verbal behavior- hand gestures to show size o words and gestures go hand in hand- need both • 3. adaptors- use to manage our arousal- excited or bored • 4. regulators- manage flow of conversation between people • 5. emotions displays- function to convey emotions Relationship between verbal and nv behavior • Substitute- street cop= use ‘stop’ hand gesture instead of saying it • Compliment- angry face, raised voice, and shaking hand o More intense meaning- whole package • Accent- drawing attention to particular part of message- emphasize/stress certain words- one part • Regulate- 1/21 Gesture • Revival of interest in gesture stems from: o Speculation about origins of language for gestural origin of language Gesture- a movement of the body or any part of body that is considered to be expressive of thought or feeling • Different form practical action- handing someone a pencil, picking up keys- action that serves a particular goal that does not serve communicative purpose Types of gestures: • Emblems- nv behaviors that replace words- defined in 1-2 words, substitute speech, meaning on their own. Nodding head, waving goodbye • Illustrators- gestures ties to language, do NOT replace language. Create visual image of message that allows message to have meaning. “I would like a xmas tree this big” while showing height with hand • Regulators- group of nv gestures to manage flow of conversations. • Adaptors- Behaviors that manage human arousal- under/over= bored/excited o Self-adaptors: contact with self o Object-adaptors: contact with objects 2 Groups of Gestures • object focused gestures (illustrators)= expressivity, outgoing o positive state of mind • body-focus gestures (self-adaptors)= discomfort, nervousness Development of Gesture • Chimps show preference for gesturing with right hand while vocalizing.. humans do too. Left brain controls language and gesture use. • Chimps intentionally alter use of gesture to match attention focus of human partners • Children’s capacity to gesture expands in conjunction with capacity for language use • Parents produce gesture simultaneous with speech when interacting with their infants, encouraging them to decode both simultaneously • 12-18 months: kids show intensive development of gesture decoding skills. Particularly response to pointing Aphasia and Gesture • Broca’s Aphasia severe impairment of speech output o Also interrupts orchestration of gesture • Wernicke’s Aphasia: severe disruption of speech comprehension o Gesture lacks intelligible semantic content Social Aspects of Gesture • People seem to have strong desire to use gesture o Talking on cell phone in car and using gestures even though no one is watching • Gestures aid in communication o They contribute to the redundancy of the uttered message o They enable listener comprehension and speech production of the sender- more fluent and understandable Gestures Aid Listener’s Comprehension • Meta-analysis of 63 studies • Comprehension of speech with vs. without gesture • Average effect size for comprehension of speech with vs. without gesture was d=.61 (medium sized effect) • Effects strongest when: o Gestures depicted motor actions vs. abstract concepts o Are not completely redundant with speech o The listeners are children 1/22/16 6:49 PM 1/22/16 6:49 PM
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