Psych 101 - Neuroscience notes
Psych 101 - Neuroscience notes PSYC 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by MelLem on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Simmons College taught by Michael Boroughs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Simmons College.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Psych 101 Chapter 2: Neuroscience The nervous system Divided into the CNS and PNS CNS = brain and spinal cord PNS = nerves connecting to the CNS Central Nervous System: (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Brain has two hemispheres Corpus Callosum – connects the two hemispheres. Left and right side are localized. Some functions are lateralized – meaning that they are only found on one side. Ex. Language is left and math/music is the right side. Lateralization is not never 100% however. Each hemisphere is broken down into 4 lobes. o Frontal lobe o Parietal lobe o Temporal lobe o Occipital lobe This is important so that we can isolate each behavior into a certain location in the brain. Sensory information is sent to the opposite hemisphere Principle is contralateral organization Sensory data crosses over in pathways lead to the cortex. Visual aspects have a cross over What is seen from the left eye is processed on the right side of the brain and vice versa. Other senses are similar to this. Contralateral motor control Frontal lobe – motor cortex Movements are controlled by this area Right side hemisphere controls left side of body Left controls right Motor nerves cross sides in the spinal cord Corus callosum Significant structure in the brain Major, but not the only pathway between both sides. Connects comparable structures to each side Permits data receives on one side to be processed in both hemispheres. What happens if the corpus callosum is cut? Sensory inputs are still crossed Motor outputs are still crossed Hemispheres cant exchange data PNS – peripheral nervous system 3 kinds of neurons connects the CNS to the body o Sensory neurons o Motor neurons o Inter neurons Motor – CNS to muscles and organs Sensory – sensory receptors to CNS Inter – Connections within the CNS Peripheral nervous system: Divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems Autonomic nervous system is divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. Somatic Nervous system: Nerves to/from spinal cord o Controls muscle movements o Somatosensory inputs Both voluntary and reflex movement Skeletal reflexes o Simplest is spinal arc Autonomic nervous system: Two divisions o Parasympathetic & o Sympathetic Controls involuntary functions o Heart beat o Blood pressue o Respiration o Digestion Fight or flight response due to adrenaline Sympathetic Nervous system Fight or flight response Releases adrenaline and noradrenaline Increased heart rate Increases blood flow to skeletal muscles Parasympathetic (Brings you back to a “calm” state) Rest and digest Contracts pupils Lowers heart rate and blood pressure and respiration. Occipital Lobe Contains primary visual cortex area o Input from optic nerve Outputs are to parietal and temporal lobe Temporal lobe Auditory cortex Inputs are auditory and visual patterns o Speech recognition o Face recognition o Word o Memory Outputs to limbic system, basal ganglia and the brain stem Parietal lobe Inputs from multiple senses Contains primary somatosensory cortex Borders visual and auditory cortex Outputs to frontal lobe Hand eye coordination Eye movements Attention Frontal lobe Contains primary motor cortex No direct sensory inputs (no senses processed here) Important planning and sequencing areas Brocas area is for speech Prefrontal area for working memory Frontal lobe disorders Broca’s area o Expressive or motor aphasia o Disorder of speech Wernicke’s area o Wenicke’s aphasia o Prefrontal area o Lose track of ongoing context o Fail to inhibit inappropriate responses Neurons and Neurotransmitters Anatomy of a neuron
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