Week 1 and 2 of notes
Week 1 and 2 of notes CRIM435
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Briggs on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM435 at Indiana State University taught by Christian Gallagher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Criminal Investigation Part 1 Overview of Criminal Investigation Chapter 1: Methods of Investigation 1. Nature of Investigation 3 I’s Information, Interrogation, and Instrumentation Corpus Delicti- evidence that a crime was commited Finding the perpetrators is the simplest phase of investigation 2. Information Most important Can identify perpetrators, possibly motive is revealed, then guides rest of investigation 3. Interrogation Investigators often overlook the simple task of asking the suspect if they committed the crime Many people still talk after given their rights because they have an irresistible desire to talk when their character is being questioned 4. Instrumentation Science and computer analysis to detect crime Crime shows like CSI foster views that expenses are not an issue and every test can be ran Jurors become suspicious when cases lack scientific analysis like their favorite shows 5. Ethics of Investigation Investigator must maintain the values of justice Bending and breaking rules is a misguided strategy 6. Phases of the Investigation 3 phases Identifying perpetrators, tracking and locating them, developing facts to prove guilt in court 7. Identifying the Criminal a. Confession b. Eyewitness c. Criminal evidence – motive and opportunity d. Associative Evidence- weapon, hair, DNA left at crime scene 8. Tracking and Locating the Criminal 9. Proving Guilty Most difficult phase Final test of investigation is presenting in court 10.Elements of Offense Corpus Delicti must 1 be proven Identify perpetrator a. Intent The accused knew they were doing something wrong Some crimes require proof of intent to do injury to someone else 11.Role of Reason How crime was committed Inductive reasoning- using specific observations to generalize an explanation of events (broken window or door) Deductive reasoning- investigators begin with general theory, apply it, and determine if crime can be explained by theory 12.Representative Approach There is not one method of approach. Many hypotheses are needed to solve a crime 13.Chance 14.Intuition Chapter 2: The Investigator’s Report 1. The Investigator’s Notebook a. Repository details - Storing of information by recording or note taking b. Basis of the Report- report is drafted from notebook c. Supplement Sketches and Photographs d. Documentary Evidence- evidence must be legible and cane be used to refresh memories 2. Materials Ink and bound notebook should be used to remain permanent One notebook per case 3. Recording Notes Notes are gathering and recorded in chronological order Report Writing 4. Importance Effectiveness and quality of report are of high importance Crimes can be linked by investigative reports If bad reporting, can be scrutinized later 5. Purpose of Investigative Report An official business record pertaining to an investigation 6. Nature of Report Objective statement of investigator’s report Cases can take months to go to correct. Reports should be well written to avoid poor grammar, improperly used words, and misspellings that can discredit the investigator. 7. Qualities Accurate, Clear, Brief a. Accuracy b. Completeness c. Clarity 8. Sequence of Reports Activities not documented are assumed not to have been done Report should include negative and positive findings to remove unwarranted and misleading suspicion Timely manner 9. Parts of a Report a. Administrative data b. Synopsis c. Details of report d. Conclusions and recommendations e. Undeveloped leads f. Enclosures g. Style 10.Initial Report Sets forth basis of investigation 11.Progress or Supplemental Report 12.Closing Reports 13.Miscellaneous a. Informants- symbol should be used (I-2) to avoid disclosing the identity b. Minors- document consent of parents c. Statements- include time and place taken d. Records- business records, phone logs, tax statements with dates and content e. Events witnessed by investigators- f. Descriptions of persons and property Chapter 3: Crime Scene Procedures Crime Scene Search 1. Overview 2. Preliminary – secure the area 3. Assignment of Duties The officer in charge directs and coordinates, assigns duties, and assumes responsibility of the investigation. Photographer- photographs scene Sketcher- prepares a rough draft at the scene and later finishes it Master note taker (scribe) - chronicles the scene investigation by using descriptions given by others, notes the time and person when evidence is discovered, and maintains an orderly log of proceedings Evidence collector- collects, preserves, and tags articles of evidence Measurer- makes overall measurements of the scene and location of each article of evidence 4. The Survey- notice the surroundings before starting investigation 5. The Search – establish search plan 6. The Mechanics of the Search a. Strip Method b. Spiral Method c. Zone Method d. Wheel Method 7. Precautions 8. Evaluations a. Physical Reconstruction b. Mental Reconstruction 9. Equipment Crime Scene Sketch 10.General a. Rough sketch b. Finished drawing c. Materials 11.Elements of Sketching a. Measurements b. Compass direction c. Essential Items d. Scale or Proportion e. Legend f. Title 12.Cross-Projection Sketch 13.Measuring methods 14.Computer Method Photographing the Crime Scene 15.Use of Photography Photo graphs are used to convey relevant events and provide visual communication 16.Purpose of Crime Scene Photos a. Provide Permanent Record b. Understand Crime Scene c. Investigative purpose 17.Evidence Rules Relating to Photographs 18.Photographing the crime scene 19.Selection of Point of View 20.Digital Video 21.“Posed” Photographs and Markers Chapter 4 Fingerprints 1. Introduction 2. The Nature of a Fingerprint No two fingerprints are alike. 3. Sole Prints Palm and sole prints are unique like fingerprints. 4. Deceased Persons a. Recently dead- if it is 10 hours or less prints can be used by scanning or using spoon method b. Advanced Decomposition- remaining fragments from outer layer can be should be removed and used to create prints c. Desiccation and Charring- must soften skin then try to fill out d. Drowned Persons- remove skin e. Dusting-Tape Method- used for extremely fine or worn ridges Latent Fingerprints 5. General 6. Searching for Fingerprints 7. Locating Prints Locate prints before beginning any process 8. Developing the Print 9. Photography Latent fingerprints should be photographed after being developed and before any other measures are taken to preserve them 10.Handing and Transporting Gloves should be worn and articles should be touched only where there is little likelihood of disturbing a latent fingerprint. Never wrap an object in a handkerchief or a towel. If possible, a fingerprint should be left on the surface it was found. 11.Elimination process Eliminate prints of people who have legitimate access to the scene (Members of household, police officers, employees of a business, emergency responders) 12.Lifting Process of physically removing latent fingerprints from their original surface Most prints are lifted by using transparent tape 13.Palm Prints 14.Poroscopy – not of scientific acceptance 15.Earprints- not promising for conviction Classification of Fingerprints 16.Intro 17.Ridge Characteristics Basic elements of classification 18.Basic Features and Terminology 19.Pattern Types Arches, loops, and whorls 20.Henry Classification 21.NCIC Fingerprint Classification System (NCIC FPC) National Crime Information Center (NCIC) contains wanted persons files NCIC FPC aids in mathching prints but does not give a positive match 22.Automated Fingerprint Identification First used to find a serial killer who had killed 15 women in Los Angeles
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