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Biology week 2 notes

by: Fatima Barat

Biology week 2 notes BIO 282

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Biology > BIO 282 > Biology week 2 notes
Fatima Barat
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These notes cover what is going to be on our next exam.
ConceptualApproachBioMajors II
Class Notes
Biology 282




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fatima Barat on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 282 at Arizona State University taught by Wright in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see ConceptualApproachBioMajors II in Biology at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
BIO 282 Week 2 notes How organisms survive rapid change: acclimation  Adaptation  Adaptations: biologists that study animal anatomy and physiology   Traits that make an individual better adapted than other results in evolution by natural selection  The role of fitness Trade­offs  Trade­offs: inescapable compromises between traits  Producing an offspring vs immune response function  Animals have to sacrifice one or the other because it takes energy   This results in a trade­off  Acclimatization  It is a short­term reversible response to environmental fluctuations  Occurs by a phenotype change in order to adapt to the environment  Acclimatization is limited and comes with a great cost:  The enzymes would be more rigid  Metabolism increases overall  Acclimatization would be beneficial by:  If there is energy  Organisms adapt to certain time scale  If there is a cost, it will be seen in an environment with benefits  Homeostasis:  Can be achieve by conformation or regulation  Conformation is when organisms body temperature matches the surrounding  Regulation is when the environment is within limits to maintain internal  temperature  Homeostatic system includes 1) sensor 2) integrator 3) effector  Sensor: senses the internal or external environment  Integrator: detects the sensory information and responds  Effector: tries to maintain the ideal internal condition  Mechanisms of heat exchange  Conduction: direct transfer of heat by contact  Ex. Turtle touching a rock  Convection: gain or loss of heat due to flow, can happen between different phases of  gas  Ex. The wind  Radiation: heat transfer without direct contact  Ex: sunlight  Evaporation: change from liquid water to gas; cannot gain heat and only results in  loss  Risky especially for smaller organisms because of losing too much water BIO 282 Week 2 notes  Using behavior prevents from water and heat evaporation  Organisms can move from shade to sunlight to prevent water loss  Shade is cooler while sunlight warms the organism  Thermoregulation  Controlling body temperature; varies widely  The costs:   Energy, feeding for females, mating options, males defending territory  Depends on the environment  Shortest times imposes greater energy because it urges organisms to continually  move  Phenotypic plasticity  One genotype has multiple phenotype and environment triggers change  Ecotherms rely on the sunlight while endotherms based on internal heat  Effect of UV light:  Bad: can give skin cancer and sunburn  Good: vitamin D  Depending on where one is from determines the amount of sunlight one needs  More melanin helps protect from UV light  Ex. People in Africa because of the constant heat in their environment  Which means they do not have to worry as much from protecting  themselves from UV light compared to a person from Europe, who has a lighter skin tone. 


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