Biology week 2 notes
Biology week 2 notes BIO 282
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fatima Barat on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 282 at Arizona State University taught by Wright in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see ConceptualApproachBioMajors II in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
BIO 282 Week 2 notes How organisms survive rapid change: acclimation Adaptation Adaptations: biologists that study animal anatomy and physiology Traits that make an individual better adapted than other results in evolution by natural selection The role of fitness Tradeoffs Tradeoffs: inescapable compromises between traits Producing an offspring vs immune response function Animals have to sacrifice one or the other because it takes energy This results in a tradeoff Acclimatization It is a shortterm reversible response to environmental fluctuations Occurs by a phenotype change in order to adapt to the environment Acclimatization is limited and comes with a great cost: The enzymes would be more rigid Metabolism increases overall Acclimatization would be beneficial by: If there is energy Organisms adapt to certain time scale If there is a cost, it will be seen in an environment with benefits Homeostasis: Can be achieve by conformation or regulation Conformation is when organisms body temperature matches the surrounding Regulation is when the environment is within limits to maintain internal temperature Homeostatic system includes 1) sensor 2) integrator 3) effector Sensor: senses the internal or external environment Integrator: detects the sensory information and responds Effector: tries to maintain the ideal internal condition Mechanisms of heat exchange Conduction: direct transfer of heat by contact Ex. Turtle touching a rock Convection: gain or loss of heat due to flow, can happen between different phases of gas Ex. The wind Radiation: heat transfer without direct contact Ex: sunlight Evaporation: change from liquid water to gas; cannot gain heat and only results in loss Risky especially for smaller organisms because of losing too much water BIO 282 Week 2 notes Using behavior prevents from water and heat evaporation Organisms can move from shade to sunlight to prevent water loss Shade is cooler while sunlight warms the organism Thermoregulation Controlling body temperature; varies widely The costs: Energy, feeding for females, mating options, males defending territory Depends on the environment Shortest times imposes greater energy because it urges organisms to continually move Phenotypic plasticity One genotype has multiple phenotype and environment triggers change Ecotherms rely on the sunlight while endotherms based on internal heat Effect of UV light: Bad: can give skin cancer and sunburn Good: vitamin D Depending on where one is from determines the amount of sunlight one needs More melanin helps protect from UV light Ex. People in Africa because of the constant heat in their environment Which means they do not have to worry as much from protecting themselves from UV light compared to a person from Europe, who has a lighter skin tone.
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