A&P 2457 Week 1
A&P 2457 Week 1 BIOL 2457
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Mayeda on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Timothy L Henry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Intro to Anatomy and Physiology (Notes taken from Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology, Allen & Harper, 5th edition) Anatomy—the science of the body structures and the interactions between them o first studied by dissection Physiology—the science of the body functions or how the body parts work o Structure reflects function Levels of Organization o Chemical Level Atoms—the smallest units of matter Molecules—two or more atoms combined together C (carbon), H (hydrogen), O (oxygen), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), Ca (calcium), S (sulfur) essential to life Examples of molecules include DNA and glucose (blood sugar) o Cellular Level Cells—fused molecules, the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals Examples of cells: muscle cells, nerve cells, and epithelial cells o Tissue Level Tissues—groups of cells that work with materials around them to perform a specific function 4 types of tissues o Epithelial—covering of surfaces, lines of hollow organs and cavities o Connective—connects, protects, supports body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues o Muscular—contracts to move and generate heat for the body o Nervous—carries information from on party of the body to another part of the body through nerve impulses o Organ Level Organs—structures that are made of two or more different types of tissues; have specific functions and have recognizable shapes o System Level System—related organs with a common function that work together to perform a certain task There are 11 body systems for the human body o Organism Level Organism—any living individual, all parts of the human body work together, which make an organism Basic Life Processes o Metabolism—sum of all processes that occur in the body Catabolism—breakdown of complex chemical compounds The enzyme pepsin breaks down meat (a source of protein) Anabolism—building of chemical compounds from smaller components The body takes protein and uses it for other places in the body, such as nails, hair, skin o Responsiveness—body’s ability to detect and respond to changes Nerves and muscles o Movement—motion of the whole body, single cells, individual organs, and the structures inside cells o Growth—increase in body size that usually results from the increase in size of cells and/or increase number of cells o Differentiation—development of a cell to a specialized state for a specific function Stem cells o Reproduction—maturation of new cell growth, repair or replacement (mitosis) or production of a new individual (meiosis) Homeostasis—dynamic condition of equilibrium in the body’s internal environment due to constant interaction of the body’s regulatory processes o Body fluids—homeostasis plays a role in order to maintain the volume and composition of body fluids (dilute, watery solutions that have dissolved chemicals) Intercellular fluid (ICF)—fluid within cells Extracellular fluid (ECF)—fluid outside of cells Interstitial fluid—ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues ECF in blood vessels=blood plasm; lymphatic=lymph; brain=cerebrospinal fluid; joints=synovial fluid; eyes=aqueous humor and vitreous body Negative Feedback Systems—reverses a change in a controlled condition o Example: Blood pressure (BP) increases (stimulus), baroreceptors (receptors) send nerve impulses (input) to brain (control center), which interprets and responds by signaling nerve impulses (output) to heart and blood vessels (effectors). Heart rate decreases and blood vessels dilate, which causes BP to decrease (response). o Examples: sweating when hot, shivering when cold, Positive Feedback Systems—strengthen/reinforce a change in a controlled condition o Examples: childbirth and increase in contractions; bleeding more in order to cause clotting; losing a lot of blood causes BP to decrease and oxygen to cells decrease Homeostatic Imbalances o Disorder—abnormality of function or structure o Disease—more specific term for a particular illness that is recognizable by a set of signs and symptoms Local disease—targets one/limited area Systemic disease—targets entire/several parts of the body Symptoms—subjective changes in body functions that is not noticeable to an observer (doctor or nurse) only the person experiencing them can feel Nausea, headache, anxiety Signs—objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure Swelling, rash, fever, high BP, etc Anterior View of the Body Anatomical Position—body upright, standing erect facing toward the observer, head and eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor and forward, upper limbs to the sides, and palms turned forward (supine position). Directional Terms: Planes: Frontal Plane (Coronal Plane)—divides anterior and posterior sides Parasagittal Plane—divides left and right side unequally Midsagittal Plane—divides left and right sides equally Transverse Plane (cross-sectional/horizontal plane)—divides superior and inferior sides Oblique plane—passes at an oblique angle Body Cavities: Cranial Cavity—contains brain o Vertebral Cavity—contains spinal cord o Meninges—3 layers of protective tissue o Cerebral fluid Thoracic Cavity—chest cavity formed by the ribs, muscles of chest, sternum o Pericardial cavity—fluid-filled space surrounding the heart o Pleural Cavities—fluid-filled spaces around each lung o Mediastinum—central part of thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity—extends from diaphragm to the groin; encircled by abdominal muscular wall and bones/muscles of pelvis o Abdominal cavity—contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestines, and most of the large intestine o Pelvic cavity—contains urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and reproductive organs o Viscera—organs inside thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities Serous membrane—covers these organs and lines walls of thorax and abdomen Peritoneum—serous membrane in abdominal cavity Quadrants and Regions of the Human Body
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