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TXMI 4250 Week Two Notes

by: Ashley Pacilio

TXMI 4250 Week Two Notes 4250

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Retail > 4250 > TXMI 4250 Week Two Notes
Ashley Pacilio
GPA 3.69

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About this Document

These notes are over his lectures in week two
Survey of Apparel and Soft Goods Manufacturing
Gregory W. Vessels
Class Notes
Fashion, apparel, manufacturing, Textiles, quality, analysis, sewn products
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Pacilio on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4250 at University of Georgia taught by Gregory W. Vessels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Survey of Apparel and Soft Goods Manufacturing in Retail at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Survey Apparel Manufacturing Week Two: Day One – January 18, 2016 • Martin Luther King Jr. Day – no class Week Two: Day Two – January 20, 2016 • DON’T FORGET TO SIGN IN!!! • Business-style class • Business simulations are designed to train you for the future o Our team is starting our own company and each of us will take a position (some may have to take more than one) o Select a product and take it from development to final sell through o Real life business challenges o 10-15 meetings o 6 presentations – one person will do each one § Formal business attire is required § Ten minute time frame o Final presentation will be an overview of entire thing o Grade evaluated on both individual and team performance o Combination of Shark Tank and The Apprentice o Decisions must be made by consensus • I am on Team One • American Apparel Manufacturing Company – create a unique identity • Print syllabus • One hour of business meeting time out of class • Good outcomes can come from all problems • Teams will score other teams (from 1 to 5) in these categories o Presentation skills o Definition of problem o Coverage of material o Solution o Plan to sell stakeholders o Develop at least one question for presenter • Positions o VP of Product Design and Development o VP of Technical Development and Engineering o VP of Manufacturing o VP of Logistics and Distribution o VP of Purchasing, Raw Materials, and Inventory o VP of Finance and Accounting o VP of Production and Operations • Management is about what you can inspire each other to do • Team building: respect, encourage, and compromise (brainstorm, no bad ideas, forced ranking, be receptive, sell your ideas, gain consensus) Week Two: Day Three – January 22, 2016 • History of Apparel Manufacturing • Wearing of apparel dates back to prehistoric time o Started as a cave/cottage industry o Sewing by hand and tailor shops • Civil War brought ready to wear clothing in the form of military uniforms to the US • Today’s technical and sizing standards were created by the military • Industrial Espionage - first instance was immigrants from English bringing technology for mechanical looms and textile mills • The textiles industry was the first to employ women outside the home in the 18 century o Created mill villages and had dorms for farm girls o Sent home $1.75/week o Worked 4:30 am to 7:00 pm • Working conditions started a worker revolt and unions were formed • First apparel factory: Philadelphia to make uniforms for the war of 1812 • 1860 – invention of sewing machine • 1880 – “Boston System” – divides the garment into sections and assign to individual workers beginning on piece-rate system • 1863 – Ebenezer Butterick and his wife invented graded paper patterns • 1830 - Barthelemy Thimonnier – French Tailor – came up with one thread chain-stitch machine to simulate hand sewing o Interesting fact: tailors revolted and tried to stone him • Elias Howe – created hand crank machine that penetrated fabric to form a lock stitch • 1899 - Isaac Singer – first practical electric sewing machine • Migration started after the Civil War – from north to south o North – industrial; South – agrarian o In search of non-union labor o 1960: most Southern towns had an apparel plant • 1965: Athens had at least 10 apparel factories • 1950’s peak of apparel employement – 1.4 million o 1996: 823,000 people o 2016: 300,000 • Trade rules (807 and 807A) developed to assist companies in competing with imports o 807A – US fabric cut in the US could be assembled in Caribbean countries and duty would be applied on the value added when reentering the US • Retail and consumer pricing pressures forced US apparel manufacturers to start up offshore sourcing o To protect domestic investments, limited production was moved offshore and pricing was weighted o Started in Mexico since they share a border § Known as the Maquiladora Industry • 1994 NAFTA – agreement between the US, Canada, and Mexico o US lost 128,000 jobs in textiles, but gains 2.2 million in other areas • DR-CAFTA – passed in 2006, adopted in 2007 o Dominican Republic, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and the US o Garments generated by components from any of these countries starting with a yarn can be moved to any other of these countries duty free o Eliminated the need for cutting the US and allowed offshore factories to provide CMT services, not only assembly • Started sourcing full packages from Asia because they had cheaper fabrics o They took responsibility for fabric, trim, labor, and delivery o Prior to this companies dealt with contractors (labor and trim) o No longer had to use money on building and equipment • Sourcing helps improve companies’ return on assets • 1970s-1990s – automation, though limited because of the inconsistency of various fabrics • Pros of textile industry for developing nations: o A lot of jobs are available, and works are plentiful o Labor is cheap o Relatively low investment to start o Many people learn sewing skills early in life • Uses for textiles: apparel, home furnishings, and industrial • Carpet is less vulnerable because of weight and bulkiness for shipping long distances • Military contractors still domestic (Berry Amend.) • Some products are required to be domestic by the union, and some high-tech fabrics have been able to survive because of patents • Sourcing agents to be the middle man – placed in the production with manufacturer, monitored the process, and checked the quality before shipment o Charge from 3% to 12% of the invoice value, depending on the service • Two of the largest sourcing companies: Li & Fung and Luen Thai • Retailers cut out the middleman manufacturer for their private label products o The lines are blurring between retail and manufacturing • American Apparel’s Dove Charney said he couldn’t get anyone to buy his product so he opened his own stores • Some predict that if a company gives up their design capability, their days are numbered • Often designers, product developers, and sales people will buy items from the store for analysis then return them for a refund • Assignment: Find a garment you like to bring to class and be prepared to discuss your garment in garment analysis terms


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