PY 372- Week 2 Notes
PY 372- Week 2 Notes PY 372
Popular in PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William Hart in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
PY 372- Week 2 Notes Lecture 1 Social Psychology Quiz 1. Most of us have quite accurate insight into the factors that influence our thoughts and behaviors. a. FALSE 2. A person looking into a mirror will behave more in line with his/her principles than a person not. a. TRUE 3. To be mentally healthy, people need an opportunity to act out aggressive energy. a. FALSE i. Research says to distract yourself from negativity 4. Students who are given an incentive to come to class will end up enjoying class more than students who do not get an incentive. a. FALSE i. More about the incentive rather than the class itself ii. Start getting paid to do what you love love leaves 5. All things being equal, the more often we see someone’s face, the more we grow to like the face. a. TRUE i. More you perceive, more you like 6. The most successful relationships are those in which opposites attract. a. FALSE i. Attracted to similarity less conflict ii. Essentially looking for yourself 7. People will pull harder in a tug of war when part of a team than when alone. a. FALSE i. 1/3 of effort with team ii. not accountable iii. social loafing 8. Playing “hard to get” is an effective seduction technique a. T/F i. People don’t like universally hard to get ii. Hard for other people but easy for you iii. Selectively hard to get 9. Depressed people tend to have unrealistically negative views of themselves a. TRUE i. More realistic understanding reality is a cause for depression ii. Depressive realism !!What is Social Psychology!! o The scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the actual or imagined presence of others. **Lewin’s Equation: B=f(P,E) Behavior Is a function of the person and the environment (physical setting) -Social psych places greater emphasis on E -Criticism & Myth of Social Psychology- -Is Social psychology common sense? NO common sense is often faulty ( contradictions on same topics) 1. Our common sense ideas are rarely critically analyzed -We typically accept ideas are true when they SEEM true- people are gullible -EX: Santa Claus 2. Stated ambiguously and generally, therefore hard to dispute -things stated generally often seem true, but upon inspection not insightful **The tendency for people to be impressed by this general feedback= The Barnum Effect 3. Sometimes its outright wrong !!!The difference between social psychology and common sense is that social psychology uses the scientific method Lecture 2 -Research Methods- To be a science: 1. Systematic observation ( v. casual) a. Way to answer questions 2. Public verification a. Can be reproducible 3. Explores questions that can be addressed via observation a. Can’t be touched, metaphysical b. EX whether God exists can’t be (dis)proven Studying Behavior Systematically o **begins with a THEORY A statement that describes, predicts or explains behavior EX physically venting frustration makes one feel better o Ultimately have to break a theory down into a testable statement= HYPOTHESIS o Specific, testable and disconfirmable statement about the theory we want to test o THE TEST -Moving from constructs to physical action = OPERATIONALIZATION -GOALS- 1. To describe behavior 2. Be able to predict 3. Be able to explain Descriptive Research Description: Used to describe characteristics in a population -EX what percentage of people would follow silly rules? !Different Methods! -self report (E survey) -observational methods o naturalistic- don’t let the subjects know that they are being watched !Sampling and External Validity! o Sample should reflect population o random sampling: drawing a sample where each individual has an equal chance of being included External Validity: the results of a study can be generalized to the population of interest -interpreting surveys can be complicated o people may not tell the truth o you could ask people completely made up questions and they would have answers for them -ordering if questions also matters **Can learn a lot from surveys but responses are not always accurate or truthful*** ALL about construction -Correlational Research- PREDICTION - determine whether and how 2 pre existing variables are related o EX how does money relate to happiness? Can be POSITIVE or NEGATIVE relationship o 2 Things to consider: 1. Strengthextent of the relationship 2. Directionality how the relationship looks **correlation coefficient (r) relations between variables quantified -r (-1 to +1) !!! Absolute value of (r) indicates strength!!! - Further from 0= increase in strength - Closer to 1 (or -1)= stronger (-) negatively related (+) positively related ADVANTAGES Correlations help you predict important variables such as happiness, performance, violence, will make a good mate, and so on CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION -You can design a study to test causation ISSUES Random assignment o Must not have bias o Fundamentally critical Groups must be treated equally Only manipulate ONE thing o Random Sampling is not random assignment With Experimentation: - CAN conclude cause/effect - Often not like real world o Artificial situation - Practical and ethical issues try to eliminate these STUDY EXPERIMENT -descriptive, correlational -involves manipulation -can get cause/effect How do we address ethical concerns? - Informal consent - Minimize discomfort - Only do worthwhile research - Confidentiality - Debriefing o Detailed explanation
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