Life 103 Notes 1st Week
Life 103 Notes 1st Week LIFE 103
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Phylogeny & the Tree of Life geologic record - standard time scale for presence of life on earth over the last 3.5 • billion years • types of classiﬁcation —Linnaeus: binomial classiﬁcation —phylogenies: use of molecular and morphological traits to infer evolutionary relationships —domains: reorganization of kingdoms using endosymbiotic theory • Linnaeus classiﬁcation —created “bins” of similar organisms—>taxonomy —hierarchal system: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species —binomial nomenclature is the scientiﬁc two-name system for naming organisms (Genus, species) • accurate taxonomy should reﬂect evolutionary relatedness and individuals within a bin should contain all the organisms that share a common ancestor • phylogeny - evolutionary history of a group of organisms, represented by branching diagram called phylogenic tree • systematics classiﬁes organisms and determines evolutionary relationships • nodes on a phylogenic tree point to a common ancestor between organisms • homology - phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry • analogy - similarity due to convergent evolution • convergent evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages • an organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome —DNA that codes for rRNA changing slowly over time is an example of a conserved gene, which is used to explore ancient evolutionary events —mitochondrial DNA evolving rapidly is an example of what is used t explore recent evolutionary events • 3-domain system adopted —bacteria (prokarytes) —archaea (prokaryotes) —eukarya (eukaryotes) • endosymbiotic theory —Lynn Margulis proposed that mitochondria/chloroplasts in eukaryotes came from symbiotic bacteria —probably led to development of heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms • advent of mitochondria led to explosion in diversity —aerobic respiration gives considerable energy advantage • horizontal gene transfer - movement of genes between genomes, has played a key role in evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes • causes of horizontal gene transfer —exchange of transposable elements and plastids —viral infection —fusion of organisms • sex pilus - horizontal tube connecting one organism to another • 3D “web” of life is a more accurate description of the history of life, with a tangled network of connected branches instead of an organized tree • differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
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