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Life 103 Notes 1st Week

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Life 103 Notes 1st Week LIFE 103

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > LIFE 103 > Life 103 Notes 1st Week
Caroline Hurlbut
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About this Document

These are the notes from the first week of Life 103 lectures. These notes only cover one day of lecture, since the other two days were not spent covering material.
Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Phylogeny & the Tree of Life geologic record - standard time scale for presence of life on earth over the last 3.5 • billion years • types of classification —Linnaeus: binomial classification —phylogenies: use of molecular and morphological traits to infer evolutionary relationships —domains: reorganization of kingdoms using endosymbiotic theory • Linnaeus classification —created “bins” of similar organisms—>taxonomy —hierarchal system: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species —binomial nomenclature is the scientific two-name system for naming organisms (Genus, species) • accurate taxonomy should reflect evolutionary relatedness and individuals within a bin should contain all the organisms that share a common ancestor • phylogeny - evolutionary history of a group of organisms, represented by branching diagram called phylogenic tree • systematics classifies organisms and determines evolutionary relationships • nodes on a phylogenic tree point to a common ancestor between organisms • homology - phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry • analogy - similarity due to convergent evolution • convergent evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages • an organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome —DNA that codes for rRNA changing slowly over time is an example of a conserved gene, which is used to explore ancient evolutionary events —mitochondrial DNA evolving rapidly is an example of what is used t explore recent evolutionary events • 3-domain system adopted —bacteria (prokarytes) —archaea (prokaryotes) —eukarya (eukaryotes) • endosymbiotic theory —Lynn Margulis proposed that mitochondria/chloroplasts in eukaryotes came from symbiotic bacteria —probably led to development of heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms • advent of mitochondria led to explosion in diversity —aerobic respiration gives considerable energy advantage • horizontal gene transfer - movement of genes between genomes, has played a key role in evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes • causes of horizontal gene transfer —exchange of transposable elements and plastids —viral infection —fusion of organisms • sex pilus - horizontal tube connecting one organism to another • 3D “web” of life is a more accurate description of the history of life, with a tangled network of connected branches instead of an organized tree • differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes


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