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Week Two of Notes

by: Laura Castro Lindarte

Week Two of Notes PSC 2337

Laura Castro Lindarte
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About this Document

Goes over chapter 1 and 2 of the book
Development Politics
Jessica C. Liao
Class Notes
Development Politics




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2337 at George Washington University taught by Jessica C. Liao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
  January 19, 2016   Dimensions of Political Development (part 1)   ● Questions to think about:  1. Is the way China has chosen to decrease poverty a good way to do so?   a. Think of bad working conditions   2. Exactly how did colonialism lay the foundation of poverty in Latin America and  Africa? Is it the only explanation to why those regions are poor?   3. Was Colonialism the reason that Europe got ahead? What other factors are  important to their economic development?   4. What role does the state play in reducing poverty?   ● Modernization Theorydevelopment happens in a domino effe​linear)   ○ Vieweconomic development, rationalization, integration and democrat​s tion a many aspects of modernizing society  ● Huntington argues against this in 1968  ○ Says thapolitical and economic development happen independe​and lead to  social development not political development  ○ Instability happens whate of mobilization exceeds what institutions in nations  can do   ● Mass mobilizatio is important to political development and democracy    ● Huntington’s Argument:  ○ Many developing nations are not  able to develop the institutions to  avoid political d​and achieve  full stability   ○ Stability is more important that  being democraticif a country is  stable then it shouldn’t matter  what type of government they  have   ○ The most important thing to avoid  decay ipolitical part​nd a using elections   ● Order and Institution Approach:   ○ The most important thing to stability is political institutionalization  ○ Stability is needed to become politically developed   ○ Each country has to figurewhat system works best for them   ● Goal is tGET TO DENMARK   ○ Democratic, prosperous, secure, efficient government with little corruption    ● 3 elements needed for political institutions:   1. The State  2. Rule of Law  3. Democratic Accountability   ● An understanding of the natural human sociability is needed before looking at modern  state   ○ Kin Selectio practice of giving jobs  to those of same family (nepotism)  ■ Favor blood relatives over rest of people   ○ Altruism: exchanging resources with unrelated individuals from same or different  species   ○ No central authority   ● Emergence of state:   ○ A state has completcontrol over a certain area/territory   ○ Two type of states:   1. Patrimonial Stateleaders are thought to own leadership and the  bureaucracy is led by their relatives   2. Modern State: bureaucracy is not direct relatives o​3rd party is  there to overlook who works in government   ● Transition from patrimonial state to modern state occurs bemilitary competition  leads rulers to have to tax cit, create organized administration to look over  government and make sure that those working in administration are there due to merit  ○ The first country to transition to a modern state is Cthe Han dynasty  creating exams that individuals had to pass to join bureaucracy  ● Rule of Law:norms/rules thaall citizens have to f​including rulers   ○ Origins in relig​ecause religious authorities created rules that even the most  powerful rules had to follow   ○ Rule of Law first emerged in West Europe due to the Roman Catholic Church  dominating over the different countries’ rulers meaning that those rulers had to  follow the rules that the church created   ○ Rule of Law did not exist in China for most of itbecause China never had  a transcendental religion so no one was there to question emperor   ■ Rule of Law emerged later   ■ Confucianism beliefs do not have a God instead they believe that humans  are the most powerful beings so they are not accountable to anything or  anyone   ● Democratic Accountabili​ : ○ Parliaments emerged out of feudal institu and are a central mechanism of  accountability   ○ Usually they represented the elites of society​he king had to talk to before  he could give tax the people   ○ First emerged in the West in the 16th century after the idea of an absolute  monarchy was created to raise money for war   ■ Elites began to question whether the king should have so much power   ○ Glorious Revolution:   ■ Took place in England  ■ Huge contest between elites and the king   ■ In the endthe idea of “no taxation without representation” emerged   ○ John Locke’s Second Treati​started the idea that the government should rule  wit​“consent of the governed.”   ○ Both John Locke and the Glorious Revolutnspired both British and American  institutions   ■ Though at first only white males could participate in politics so not really a  full democracy   ■ Industrial Revolution and Colonization pushed them to change           January 21, 2016  Dimensions of Political Development (part 2)   ● 3 institutions of political development:   1. Stateinstitution that holds power over a territory   2. Rule of Lawrules/norms that everyone has to follow  a. reflect values of majority of citizens   b. Substantial: fundamenta​how much can the law bind the ruler   c. Procedural: enforci​ule of law   d. Rule by law: ruler makes the rules and can change them when they want  3. Democratic Accountabilithe ability of governmenrespond to the needs to  ALL its citizens   ● Getting to Denmark:   ○ The three institutions have ​alanced   ○ There are 2 drives that start transition to modern state:   1. Military Competition   2. Social Mobilization (due to Industrialization)  a. Most important drive  ● Political Decay can occur because:  ○ Institutional Rig​political instituailing to ad to change  ■ Due to human nature of not wanting to change    ○ Repatrimonializati​elites control the state makless accountable to the  rest of the population      ● Overview of the Book:   ○ Where does political order come from?   ■ Pre­human time to French Revolution  ■ Fukuyama’s first book focuses on this question   ○ This book focuses on the time between​ndustrial Revolution and now  ■ Argues thahistory should not be taken as dbecause no one saw  the revolution coming or its effects   ○ What happens when the​tate appears before democra​ ? ■ Prussia (Germany):   a. Modern bureaucratic rule   b. Nazis were able to rise due to state appearing before democracy  because the military was so strong that no other institution could  stop it   c. Rule of law appeared around the same time as the state   ■ Ancient China:   a. Reason why China was​ble to recover so quifrom European  influence   ○ What happens when ​emocracy appears before the st​ e? ■ Greece and Italy:   a. Clientelistic sy rises because it becomes a way for politicians  to earn votes  b. Hard to create efficient bureaucracy   ■ USA:   a. Clientelistic system​eformed due to social mobilization and  political leade​(elites appeared and demanded for  government to be more efficient)  b. Rule of law appeared first   ○ Compares 3 regions​Latin America, Sub­Saharan Africa and East Asia  ■ Want to see how accurate Economists’ ideasgeography, climate and  colonialism lead to better or worse development   ■ Say that they are wr because of Costa Rica having a very strong  government even though it was a banana republic due to geography and  Argentina not being like North America even though it has similar  characteristics to is   ○ Social context should be considwhen looking at political development  ■ Most important things to look economic growth, social mobilization  and legitimacy   a. Economic Development: defined as ​increase of output over  time”  b. Social Mobilization: different parts of society being able to express  opinion due ​ew social groups appearing   i. Gemeinschaft: personal interactions (community)   ii. Gesellschaft: indirect, impersonal interactions (society)   iii. When people move to urban areas due to industrialization  they began to spend more time with colleagues thus could  more easily begin a group  c. Legitimacy: popular belief that thenstitutions in place are fair  i. By­product of economic development and society   ○ The 16th century  Commercial Revolution led to the Industrial Revolution   ○ Economic development leads to an e ​ xpansion of division of labor which leds to  unions risin to call for better conditions (type of social mobilization)   ○ Economic development also leads to i​deas being spread throughout world  ■ Adam Smith’s ideas were adopted by South America   ■ Marxists’ ideas were adopted by places like Cuba    ○ The gap that appears between when the social mobilized groups want and what  the government can provide  is what leads to instability   ■ This can be seen in nations that are stuck in modernization   ○ Problems with Huntington’s theory:   ■ Has little evidence  a. There is not hard evidence that pre­colonial Africa was stable   ■ During the 50s and 60s, ​there was a lot of instability and violence that  can’t be explained by modernization   a. Instead caused by the fact that many countries had not previous  experience of running government so didn’t know how to do it  ■ Economic growth does not lead to instability​lack of political institutions  does   a. States with low quality institutions are usually poorer thus lack the  resources to develop better ones   ○ Third Wave:​ time period ofhuge democratic and economic growth   ■ Transformation to democracy usually occurred peacefully   ○ Arab Spring is a Huntingtonian event   ■ Revolution began in the system and now needs to be institutionalized                                             


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