Week Two of Notes
Week Two of Notes PSC 2337
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Friday January 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2337 at George Washington University taught by Jessica C. Liao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
January 19, 2016 Dimensions of Political Development (part 1) ● Questions to think about: 1. Is the way China has chosen to decrease poverty a good way to do so? a. Think of bad working conditions 2. Exactly how did colonialism lay the foundation of poverty in Latin America and Africa? Is it the only explanation to why those regions are poor? 3. Was Colonialism the reason that Europe got ahead? What other factors are important to their economic development? 4. What role does the state play in reducing poverty? ● Modernization Theorydevelopment happens in a domino effelinear) ○ Vieweconomic development, rationalization, integration and democrats tion a many aspects of modernizing society ● Huntington argues against this in 1968 ○ Says thapolitical and economic development happen independeand lead to social development not political development ○ Instability happens whate of mobilization exceeds what institutions in nations can do ● Mass mobilizatio is important to political development and democracy ● Huntington’s Argument: ○ Many developing nations are not able to develop the institutions to avoid political dand achieve full stability ○ Stability is more important that being democraticif a country is stable then it shouldn’t matter what type of government they have ○ The most important thing to avoid decay ipolitical partnd a using elections ● Order and Institution Approach: ○ The most important thing to stability is political institutionalization ○ Stability is needed to become politically developed ○ Each country has to figurewhat system works best for them ● Goal is tGET TO DENMARK ○ Democratic, prosperous, secure, efficient government with little corruption ● 3 elements needed for political institutions: 1. The State 2. Rule of Law 3. Democratic Accountability ● An understanding of the natural human sociability is needed before looking at modern state ○ Kin Selectio practice of giving jobs to those of same family (nepotism) ■ Favor blood relatives over rest of people ○ Altruism: exchanging resources with unrelated individuals from same or different species ○ No central authority ● Emergence of state: ○ A state has completcontrol over a certain area/territory ○ Two type of states: 1. Patrimonial Stateleaders are thought to own leadership and the bureaucracy is led by their relatives 2. Modern State: bureaucracy is not direct relatives o3rd party is there to overlook who works in government ● Transition from patrimonial state to modern state occurs bemilitary competition leads rulers to have to tax cit, create organized administration to look over government and make sure that those working in administration are there due to merit ○ The first country to transition to a modern state is Cthe Han dynasty creating exams that individuals had to pass to join bureaucracy ● Rule of Law:norms/rules thaall citizens have to fincluding rulers ○ Origins in religecause religious authorities created rules that even the most powerful rules had to follow ○ Rule of Law first emerged in West Europe due to the Roman Catholic Church dominating over the different countries’ rulers meaning that those rulers had to follow the rules that the church created ○ Rule of Law did not exist in China for most of itbecause China never had a transcendental religion so no one was there to question emperor ■ Rule of Law emerged later ■ Confucianism beliefs do not have a God instead they believe that humans are the most powerful beings so they are not accountable to anything or anyone ● Democratic Accountabili : ○ Parliaments emerged out of feudal institu and are a central mechanism of accountability ○ Usually they represented the elites of societyhe king had to talk to before he could give tax the people ○ First emerged in the West in the 16th century after the idea of an absolute monarchy was created to raise money for war ■ Elites began to question whether the king should have so much power ○ Glorious Revolution: ■ Took place in England ■ Huge contest between elites and the king ■ In the endthe idea of “no taxation without representation” emerged ○ John Locke’s Second Treatistarted the idea that the government should rule wit“consent of the governed.” ○ Both John Locke and the Glorious Revolutnspired both British and American institutions ■ Though at first only white males could participate in politics so not really a full democracy ■ Industrial Revolution and Colonization pushed them to change January 21, 2016 Dimensions of Political Development (part 2) ● 3 institutions of political development: 1. Stateinstitution that holds power over a territory 2. Rule of Lawrules/norms that everyone has to follow a. reflect values of majority of citizens b. Substantial: fundamentahow much can the law bind the ruler c. Procedural: enforciule of law d. Rule by law: ruler makes the rules and can change them when they want 3. Democratic Accountabilithe ability of governmenrespond to the needs to ALL its citizens ● Getting to Denmark: ○ The three institutions have alanced ○ There are 2 drives that start transition to modern state: 1. Military Competition 2. Social Mobilization (due to Industrialization) a. Most important drive ● Political Decay can occur because: ○ Institutional Rigpolitical instituailing to ad to change ■ Due to human nature of not wanting to change ○ Repatrimonializatielites control the state makless accountable to the rest of the population ● Overview of the Book: ○ Where does political order come from? ■ Prehuman time to French Revolution ■ Fukuyama’s first book focuses on this question ○ This book focuses on the time betweenndustrial Revolution and now ■ Argues thahistory should not be taken as dbecause no one saw the revolution coming or its effects ○ What happens when thetate appears before democra ? ■ Prussia (Germany): a. Modern bureaucratic rule b. Nazis were able to rise due to state appearing before democracy because the military was so strong that no other institution could stop it c. Rule of law appeared around the same time as the state ■ Ancient China: a. Reason why China wasble to recover so quifrom European influence ○ What happens when emocracy appears before the st e? ■ Greece and Italy: a. Clientelistic sy rises because it becomes a way for politicians to earn votes b. Hard to create efficient bureaucracy ■ USA: a. Clientelistic systemeformed due to social mobilization and political leade(elites appeared and demanded for government to be more efficient) b. Rule of law appeared first ○ Compares 3 regionsLatin America, SubSaharan Africa and East Asia ■ Want to see how accurate Economists’ ideasgeography, climate and colonialism lead to better or worse development ■ Say that they are wr because of Costa Rica having a very strong government even though it was a banana republic due to geography and Argentina not being like North America even though it has similar characteristics to is ○ Social context should be considwhen looking at political development ■ Most important things to look economic growth, social mobilization and legitimacy a. Economic Development: defined as increase of output over time” b. Social Mobilization: different parts of society being able to express opinion due ew social groups appearing i. Gemeinschaft: personal interactions (community) ii. Gesellschaft: indirect, impersonal interactions (society) iii. When people move to urban areas due to industrialization they began to spend more time with colleagues thus could more easily begin a group c. Legitimacy: popular belief that thenstitutions in place are fair i. Byproduct of economic development and society ○ The 16th century Commercial Revolution led to the Industrial Revolution ○ Economic development leads to an e xpansion of division of labor which leds to unions risin to call for better conditions (type of social mobilization) ○ Economic development also leads to ideas being spread throughout world ■ Adam Smith’s ideas were adopted by South America ■ Marxists’ ideas were adopted by places like Cuba ○ The gap that appears between when the social mobilized groups want and what the government can provide is what leads to instability ■ This can be seen in nations that are stuck in modernization ○ Problems with Huntington’s theory: ■ Has little evidence a. There is not hard evidence that precolonial Africa was stable ■ During the 50s and 60s, there was a lot of instability and violence that can’t be explained by modernization a. Instead caused by the fact that many countries had not previous experience of running government so didn’t know how to do it ■ Economic growth does not lead to instabilitylack of political institutions does a. States with low quality institutions are usually poorer thus lack the resources to develop better ones ○ Third Wave: time period ofhuge democratic and economic growth ■ Transformation to democracy usually occurred peacefully ○ Arab Spring is a Huntingtonian event ■ Revolution began in the system and now needs to be institutionalized
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